# Annuities: Present Value

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1 8.5 nnuities: Present Value GOL Determine the present value of an annuity earning compound interest. INVESTIGTE the Math Kew wants to invest some money at 5.5%/a compounded annually. He would like the investment to provide \$000 for scholarships at his old high school at the end of each year for the next 5 years. YOU WILL NEED graphing calculator spreadsheet software? How much should Kew invest now?. Copy the timeline shown. How would you calculate each of the present values PV to PV5? i = 5.5%/a compounded annually Compounding Period Payment \$0 \$000 \$000 \$000 \$000 \$000 \$000 Present value of each payment PV PV PV3 PV3 PV4 PV5 B. How much would Kew need to invest now if he wanted to provide \$000 at the end of the st year? C. How much would Kew need to invest now if he wanted to provide \$000 at the end of the nd, 3rd, and 4th years, respectively? D. How is the present value after years (PV) related to the present value after year (PV)? E. Set up a spreadsheet with columns as shown at the right. Enter your values of PV and PV in the Present Value column. F. Use the relationship among the present values to complete the rest of the entries under Present Value. G. Use the values in the Present Value column to determine how much Kew would need to invest now in order to provide the scholarships for the next 5 years B C Year Scholarship Payment Present Value \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Chapter 8 Discrete Functions: Financial pplications 53

2 eflecting H. What type of sequence do the present values in part F form? I. Describe a method that you could have used to solve this problem without using a spreadsheet. PPLY the Math EXMPLE epresenting the present value of an annuity earning compound interest as a series a) How much would you need to invest now at 8.3%/a compounded annually to provide \$ per year for the next 0 years? b) How much would you need to invest now to provide n regular payments of \$ if the money is invested at a rate of i% per compounding period? Tara s Solution a) i = 8.3%/a compounded annually Compounding Period Payment \$0 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ I drew a timeline showing the \$ payments for the next 0 years. Present value of each payment ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) 8 ( ) 9 ( ) 0 PV 5 ( ( i) n PV 5 (.083) PV 5 (.083) PV 3 5 (.083) 3 I considered each payment separately and used the present-value formula to determine how much would need to be invested now to provide each \$ payment nnuities: Present Value

3 b) PV 9 5 (.083) 9 PV 0 5 (.083) 0 a 5 (.083) r n 5 0 S S n 5 a(r n ) r S (.083 ) \$ sum of \$330. invested now would provide a payment of \$ for each of the next 0 years. i% per compounding period The present values for each payment are the first 0 terms of a geometric sequence with first term and common ratio.083. The total amount of money invested now has to provide each of the \$ future payments. So I had to calculate the sum of all of the present values. The sum of the present values forms a geometric series, so I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series. I rounded to the nearest cent. Compounding Period Payment 0 3 n n n \$0 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ I drew a timeline showing the \$ payments for n regular intervals. Present value of each payment ( + i ) ( + i ) ( + i ) 3 ( + i ) n ( + i ) n ( + i ) n Chapter 8 Discrete Functions: Financial pplications 55

4 PV 5 PV 3 5 PV n 5 ( ( i) n PV 5 i PV 5 ( i) ( i) 3 ( i) n a 5 3 ( i) r 5 ( i) I considered each payment separately and used the present-value formula to determine how much would need to be invested now to provide each specific \$ payment. I used negative exponents, since I was dividing by i each time. The present values for each payment are the first n terms of a geometric sequence with first term 3 ( i) and common ratio ( i). S n 5 3 ( i) 3 ( i) S n 5 a(r n ) r 3 ( i) 3 c 3 ( i) n 5 3 ( i) 3( i) n 4 ( i) 5 3 ( i) 3( i) n 4 ( i) 5 3( i)n 4 ( i) 5 3( i)n 4 i ( i)n 5 3 a b i 3 i i The present value of an annuity in which \$ is paid at the end of each of n regular intervals earning i% compound ( i)n interest per interval is PV 5 3 a b. i I needed to determine the total amount of money invested now to provide each of the \$ future payments. So I had to calculate the sum of all of the present values. The sum of the present values forms a geometric series, so I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series. The numerator and denominator each have a factor of ( i), so I multiplied them both by i to simplify. I multiplied the numerator and denominator by to simplify nnuities: Present Value

5 EXMPLE Selecting a strategy to determine the present value of an annuity Sharon won a lottery that offers \$ a year for 0 years or a lump-sum payment now. If she can invest the money at 5%/a compounded annually, how much should the lump-sum payment be to be worth the same amount as the annuity? Joel s Solution: Using a Spreadsheet 3 4 B C Year Payment Present Value "= B/.05" "= B3/(.05)^3" 3 "= B4/(.05)^4" I set up a spreadsheet to determine the present value of each of the payments for the next 0 years. The present value of each payment is given by the formula PV 5, so the ( i) n present value of the payments form a geometric sequence with r 5 Since i. Sharon is earning 5%/a, the present value of each following year is equal to.05 times the present value of the previous year B C Year Payment Present Value \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ I used the FILL DOWN command to determine the present values for the remaining payments. I then used the SUM command to determine the sum of all the present values. The lump-sum payment should be \$ Chapter 8 Discrete Functions: Financial pplications 57

6 EXMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine the regular payment and total interest of an annuity Len borrowed \$ from the bank to purchase a yacht. If the bank charges 6.6%/a compounded monthly, he will take 0 years to pay off the loan. a) How much will each monthly payment be? b) How much interest will he have paid over the term of the loan? Jasmine s Solution: Using the Formula a) b) i I calculated the interest rate per compounding period and the number of compounding n periods. PV 5 \$ PV 5 3 a a Len will have to pay \$50.94 per month for 0 years to pay off the loan \$ I 5 PV \$ \$ \$ ( i)n b i ( )40 b Over the 0-year term of the loan, Len will have paid \$ in interest. I substituted the values of PV, i, and n into the formula for the present value of an annuity. To solve for, I divided both sides of the equation by I rounded to the nearest cent. I calculated the total amount that Len will have paid over the 0-year term. I determined the interest by subtracting the present value from the total amount that Len will have paid nnuities: Present Value

7 In Summary Key Ideas The present value of an annuity is the value of the annuity at the beginning of the term. It is the sum of all present values of the payments and can be written as the geometric series PV 5 3 ( i) 3 ( i) 3 ( i) ( i) n where PV is the present value; is the regular payment; i is the interest rate per compounding period, expressed as a decimal; and n is the number of compounding periods. Compounding Period Payment \$0 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Present value of each payment ( + i) ( + i) ( + i) 3 ( + i) n ( + i) n ( + i) n i% per compounding period 0 3 n n n The formula for the sum of a geometric series can be used to determine the present value of an annuity. Need to Know The formula for the present value of an annuity is ( i)n PV 5 3 a b i where PV is the present value; is the regular payment each compounding period; i is the interest rate per compounding period, expressed as a decimal; and n is the number of compounding periods. Chapter 8 Discrete Functions: Financial pplications 59

8 CHECK Your Understanding. Each situation represents a loan. i) Draw a timeline to represent the amount of the original loan. ii) Write the series that represents the amount of the original loan. iii) Calculate the amount of the original loan. iv) Calculate the interest paid. a) b) c) d) ate of Compound Interest Compounding egular Payment per Year Period Time \$650 per year 3.7% annually 5 years \$00 every 6 months 9.4% semi-annually 9 years \$84.73 per quarter 3.6% quarterly 3 years \$83.7 per month 6.6% monthly 0 years. Each situation represents a simple, ordinary annuity. i) Calculate the present value of each payment. ii) Write the present values of the payments as a series. iii) Calculate the present value of the annuity. a) b) c) ate of Compound Interest Compounding egular Payment per Year Period Time \$8000 per year 9% annually 7 years \$300 every 6 months 8% semi-annually 3.5 years \$750 per quarter 8% quarterly years PCTISING 3. Calculate the present value of each annuity. K a) b) c) d) ate of Compound Interest Compounding egular Payment per Year Period Time \$0 per year 7.% annually 5 years \$50 every 6 months 4.8% semi-annually years \$5.50 per week 5.% weekly 00 weeks \$48.50 per month 3.4% monthly years nnuities: Present Value

9 4. You want to buy a \$300 stereo on credit and make monthly payments over years. If the store is charging you 8%/a compounded monthly, what will be your monthly payments? 5. Lily wants to buy a snowmobile. She can borrow \$7 at 0%/a compounded quarterly if she repays the loan by making equal quarterly payments for 4 years. a) Draw a timeline to represent the annuity. b) Write the series that represents the present value of the annuity. c) Calculate the quarterly payment that Lily must make. 6. occo pays \$50 for a DVD/CD player and borrows the remaining amount. He plans to make 0 monthly payments of \$40 each. The first payment is due next month. a) The interest rate is 8%/a compounded monthly. What was the selling price of the player? b) How much interest will he have paid over the term of the loan? 7. Emily is investing \$8 000 at 7.8%/a compounded monthly. She wants to withdraw an equal amount from this investment each month for the next 5 years as spending money. What is the most she can take out each month? 8. The Peca family wants to buy a cottage for \$ The Pecas can pay \$0 and finance the remaining amount with a loan at 9%/a compounded monthly. The loan payments are monthly, and they may choose either a 7-year or a 0-year term. a) Calculate the monthly payment for each term. b) How much would they save in interest by choosing the shorter term? c) What other factors should the Pecas consider before making their financing decision? 9. Charles would like to buy a new car that costs \$ The dealership offers to finance the car at.4%/a compounded monthly for five years with monthly payments. The dealer will reduce the selling price by \$3000 if Charles pays cash. Charles can get a loan from his bank at 5.4%/a compounded monthly. Which is the best way to buy the car? Justify your answer with calculations. 0. To pay off \$ in loans, Nina s bank offers her a rate of 8.4%/a compounded monthly. She has a choice between a 5-, 0-, or 5-year term. a) Determine the monthly payment for each term. b) Calculate how much interest Nina would pay in each case.. Pedro pays \$45 for a portable stereo and borrows the remaining amount. The loan payments are \$5 per month for year. The interest rate is 8.6%/a compounded monthly. a) What was the selling price of the stereo? b) How much interest will Pedro have paid over the term of the loan? Chapter 8 Discrete Functions: Financial pplications 5

10 . Suzie buys a new computer for \$. She pays \$700 and finances the rest at \$75.84 per month for years. What annual interest rate, compounded monthly, is Suzie being charged? ound your answer to two decimal places. 3. Leo invests \$ at.%/a compounded quarterly for his retirement. Leo s financial advisor tells him that he should take out a regular amount quarterly when he retires. If Leo has 0 years until he retires and wants to use the investment for recreation for the first 0 years of retirement, what is the maximum quarterly withdrawal he can make? 4. Charmaine calculates that she will require about \$ per month for the first 5 years of her retirement. If she has 5 years until she retires, how much should she invest each month at 9%/a compounded monthly for the next 5 years if she plans to withdraw \$ per month for the 5 years after that? 5. lottery has two options for winners collecting their prize: T Option : \$000 each week for life Option B: \$ in one lump sum The current interest rate is 6.76%/a compounded weekly. a) Which option would you suggest to a winner who expects to live for another 5 years? b) When is option better than option B? 6. Classify situations and factors that show the differences between each pair of C terms. Give examples. a) a lump sum or an annuity b) future value or present value Extending 7. Stefan claims that he has found a different method for calculating the present value of an annuity. Instead of calculating the present value of each payment, he calculates the future value of each payment. Then he calculates the sum of the future values of the payments. Finally, he calculates the present value of this total sum. a) Use Stefan s method to solve Example (a). b) Create another example to show that his claim is true. Include timelines. c) Use the formula for present value to prove that Stefan s claim works for all annuities. 8. Kyla must repay student loans that total \$ She can afford to make \$35 monthly payments. The bank is charging an interest rate of 7.%/a compounded monthly. How long will it take Kyla to repay her loans? 9. In question 4, Charmaine invested a fixed amount per month so that her annuity would provide her with another monthly amount in her retirement. Derive a formula for the regular payment \$ that must be made for m payments at an interest rate of i% per compounding period to provide for a regular withdrawal of \$W after all the payments are made for n withdrawals nnuities: Present Value

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