1 HACCP Food Safety Quality Assurance Manual Adapted with permission from the City of Ottawa Public Health & Long Term Care Branch HPD FS(FS)4-09/2007 jb
2 Table of Contents Page General Definitions 2 Management Procedures 3 Hiring Policy 4 Emergency Measure Procedures 6 Food Safety Procedures 7 Employee Procedures 8 Sanitation Procedures 11 Food Safety Procedures 15 Quality Assurance Forms 23 Environmental Checklist 24 Daily Temperature Form 26 Food Complaint Forms 27 Inventory Form 30 Appendix 31
3 General Definitions Clean: Free from litter or clutter, loose dirt, or food particles. Controlled Operating Procedures: Procedures which will result in error-free food production. Food Contact Surfaces: Surfaces of equipment and utensils that raw or cooked food come in contact with during preparation. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points: HACCP reduces the chances of foodborne illness by eliminating errors in food handling procedures. The result is growth reduction of bacteria. HACCP is a method of determining both the cause of errors and how to avoid them. It includes knowing the following: growth conditions of hazardous micro-organisms and the application of safe food production facility and equipment design required for safe food operations kitchen processing procedures and the specification of controlled operating procedures necessary for safe and quality food handling Non-Food Contact Surface: All exposed surfaces other than food contact and food splash surfaces. Refrigerator: A cold storage unit which maintains hazardous food at 4 C (40 F) or less. Sanitize: Reducing to a safe level the number of micro-organism on a surface. Temperature: Critical temperatures are >60 C (140 F) or <4 C (40 F) to inactivate or reduce bacterial growth. Food: Food or drink fit for human consumption. Potable Water: Water that is microbiologically & chemically safe for human consumption. Approved Source: A source from which food is obtained that meets with the approval of Health Authorities. Ingredient Control: Control measures that are in place to stop foreign objects or contaminants from getting into foods.
4 Hiring Policy First Aid Policy Emergency Measures Procedures Food Safety Procedures
5 Hiring Policy Hiring procedures should include the following: Job description Specific duties Responsibilities Required qualifications Education experience Language(s) Knowledge of food safety Abilities to implement food safety procedures Schedules First Aid Policy Provide a complete first aid kit and ensure that staff know what to do if an accident or injury occurs. Contact your local office of the Canadian Red Cross Society or St. John s Ambulance for information on first aid courses available in your area.
6 Emergency Measures Procedures Examples of Emergency Situations: Fire Flood Power failure Infectious disease outbreak Sewage back-up Food poisoning or serious allergic reaction Explosion Staff sickness/absent Procedures: To be prepared by the managers and/or supervisors. It is important to have procedures for employees to follow in the event of an emergency situation. Ensure staff know where to find these written procedures and what to do if there is an emergency situation.
7 Food Safety Procedures The manager is responsible for knowing and enforcing all the procedures in the QA manual. 1. Setting the example Provide an example of professionalism and high quality standards for employees. 2. Coaching and skill development. Observe activities and food handling procedures in all areas. Measure temperatures and times and take corrective action if necessary. 3. QA Inspections Conduct weekly inspection using the environmental checklist. 4. Quality Management Team Develop a QMT to review problems and develop effective procedures. 5. Food safety training program Maintain an effective yearly training program with regular training sessions to teach and reinforce food safety. Ensure all employees undergo thorough training. 6. Maintaining equipment Provide and maintain adequate sanitation, food preparation and storage equipment to allow employees to do a quality job. 7. Reporting illness Report any indications of foodborne illness to the Health Unit.
9 Employee Procedures 1. Handwashing wet hands with warm water use liquid soap lather, using friction for 15 seconds rinse in a downward motion dry hands with paper towels turn tap off with paper towel 2. Fingernails Keep fingernails neatly trimmed for easier cleaning. Do not use fingernail polish. 3. Jewellery Remove all unnecessary jewellery while preparing food. 4. Cleanliness The employer will ensure the availability of clean outer garments and headgear. All supervisors and employees who handle or come in contact with food or any utensil used in the preparation, processing or service of food will: not use tobacco while so engaged be clean wear clean outer garments wear headgear that confines the hair not prepare food when sick, for example when suffering from diarrhoea, and/or vomiting 5. Foot Wear Proper and safe footwear should be worn. 6. Cuts and Abrasions Properly treat and cover cuts, burns and rashes. 7. Reporting Emergency Conditions Tell the supervisor verbally of an emergency condition as defined in the Emergency Measures section.
11 Sanitation Procedures 1. Equipment Equipment used in the preparation of food must be: of sound and tight construction kept in good repair of such form and material that can be easily cleaned and sanitized Equipment and utensils which come into direct contact with food must be: corrosion-resistant and non-toxic free from cracks, crevices and open seams Food premises will provide: an adequate supply of potable water hot and cold running water under pressure in food processing areas and dishwashing areas a separate handwashing basin in a location convenient for employees in each processing area together with supplies of hot and cold water, soap in a dispenser and clean single-service towels refrigerated space adequate for the safe storage of perishable and hazardous food garbage containers of durable, leak proof and non-absorbent material with tight fitting or self-closing lids containers large enough to store all garbage and waste in a sanitary manner racks, shelves, or pallets for the storage of food and no rack or shelf shall be placed less than 15 cm (6 inches) above the floor tongs, spoons and scoops of corrosion-resistant and non-toxic material to avoid direct hand contact with food 2. Sanitation a) Garbage Storage clean and sanitize garbage receptacles after each use place garbage in a separate room, compartment or bin which is insect, rodent and odour proof, for daily collection remove garbage and wastes at least twice weekly or as often as is necessary to maintain a sanitary condition on the premises dispose of liquid waste in a sanitary manner
12 b) General Maintenance clean a food premises in such a manner that the food is not contaminated do not use chipped or cracked cups, glasses, dishes or utensils store single-service containers and single-service articles in a sanitary manner containers, caps, covers and wrapping materials used are non-toxic and will prevent contamination or adulteration of the food or milk keep every room free from materials and equipment not used in food preparation wash and sanitize the surface of equipment and facilities other than utensils that come in contact with food the floors, walls and ceilings of every room are to be clean and in good repair launder multi-service napkins and serviettes before each use and used for no other purpose 3. Toxic and Poisonous Substances kept in a compartment separate from food to prevent contamination of any working surface or utensil kept in a container that bears a label on which the contents of the container are clearly identified, follow WHIMS procedures used only in such a manner and under such conditions that the substances do not contaminate food or endanger the health of any person 4. Cleaning and Sanitizing clean and sanitize multi-service eating utensils after each use clean and sanitize utensils or equipment other than multi-service articles as often as is necessary equipment and facilities for the cleaning and sanitizing of utensils will consist of either: mechanical equipment manual equipment consisting of: three sinks of corrosion-resistant material large enough for thorough cleaning and sanitizing of utensils, and draining racks of material that is corrosion-resistant
13 Utensils shall be: pre-rinsed or pre-scraped to remove gross food particles and solids washed in a detergent solution, that is capable of removing grease sanitized Where manual equipment is used, utensils shall be: washed in the first sink in a detergent solution rinsed in the second sink in clean water at a temperature not lower then 43 C (110 F) sanitized in the third sink NOTE: Consult your Public Health Inspector for information regarding sanitizers. 5. Mechanical Dishwashing Temperatures: Wash: between 60 C (140 F) and 71 C (160 F) Sanitizing Rinse: 82 C (180 F) for at least 10 seconds or use an approved chemical solution be sure the unit is working properly sort, scrape and pre-rinse dishes and utensils wash, follow the manufacturer s instructions rinse, maintain the proper temperature allow the dishes and utensils to air dry
15 Policy: That the food preparation will be error free to prevent any food related illnesses. Critical Control Points A. Food Production 1. Cooling & Cold Holding Cool hot foods as quickly as possible by: cooling in an ice bath food broken down into small portions & refrigerated at 4 C (40 F) or less blast chilling or freezing Control Label the food as to the date, time and temperature it was placed into the refrigerator or freezer. Foods must cool from 60 C (140 F) to 20 C (68 F) or less in 2 hours and from 20 C (68 F) to 4 C (40 F) or less in four hours. 2. Preparing Food Ahead of Planned Service Try not to prepare foods ahead of time. Cooking should be done for the day s service. Control a. Proper preparation of hazardous foods b. Proper cooling/freezing/or reheating c. Hot Holding at 60 C or more for no longer than 2 hours. Dispose of any foods leftover from the hot holding. 3. Infected Persons Food service personnel must wash their hands when required. Food service personnel must not cough or sneeze over food. Wear water tight coverings; i.e. gloves over infections, cuts or burns. 4. Reheating/Use of Leftovers Hot Combination Dishes Combined cooked or precooked ingredients must reach an internal temperature of 74 C (165 F) for at least 15 seconds in less than 2 hours. Pans of casserole or stew must be heated to 74 C (165 F) for at least 15 seconds in less than 2 hours Leftovers Cool hot leftovers to 4 C (40 F) as quickly as possible. Reheat leftovers to original cooking temperature for at least 15 seconds in 2 hours or less.
16 5. Preparation Surfaces and Equipment Sanitize all preparation surfaces and equipment to reduce bacteria to a safe level. 6. Contaminated Raw Ingredients/Food From Unsafe Sources Raw meats, poultry and eggs may contain harmful bacteria. Eggs must be graded, milk must be pasteurized and meat and poultry must be federally or provincially inspected. B. Delivery and Storage 1. Incoming Products inspect incoming food products for frozen or cold temperature and record check the expiry dates and the best before dates and record inspect for damaged cases or boxes and for pinholes, bulging, or rusting canned products or signs of pest infestation store refrigerated and frozen items immediately 2. Stock Rotation date and store all incoming food so the older food will be used first 3. Storage Procedures store all labels to the front freezers must operate at -18 C (0 F) refrigerators must operate at 4 C (40 F) ensure good air flow around all products C. Temperature Guides for Cooking/Holding/Cooling The following internal temperatures must be reached for at least 15 seconds according to the Ontario Food Premises Regulation The following are recommended temperatures for beef, veal and lamb roasts and steaks Poultry, whole 82 C 180 F Well done 77 C 170 F Poultry, pieces or ground 74 C 165 F Medium 71 C 160 F Food mixtures containing poultry, 74 C 165 F Rare 60 C 140 F egg, meat, fish or another hazardous food Ground meats (not poultry) 71 C 160 F Pork, Pork products 71 C 160 F Fish 70 C 158 F
17 Holding: Foods must be maintained at: 4 C (40 F) or lower 60 C (140 F) or higher hold hot foods for 2 hours or less, then the food is to be discarded Cooling: Cool hot foods as quickly as possible: use an ice bath divide food into smaller portions place food in shallow pans use a blast chiller D. Recipe Classifications: Recipe Class Multiportion, thick item (>2 thick) Single portion, thin item, (<2 thick) Sauces, soup, beverages Fruits, vegetables, starches Breads, pastries Hot combination dish (any mixture of: meat, fish, poultry, starch, fruit, vegetable, bread, pastry, or sauce) Cold combination dish (any mixture of: meat, fish, poultry, protein, starch, fruit, vegetable, bread, pastry, or sauce) Examples beef roasts, ham, turkey breasts chops, hamburger, hot dogs, steak, fish, eggs hollandaise, beef gravy, BBQ sauce, salad dressing, fruit sauce cabbage, rice, potatoes, lettuce, mushrooms, apples bread, rolls, cakes, pancakes, pie shells stew, casseroles, pie, poultry ala king, meatloaf, hot sandwich, pizza, spaghetti and meatballs chicken salad, chef salad, ham and macaroni salad, cold sandwiches, hors d oeuvres, filled pastries In order to complete the Food Preparation HACCP Evaluation it is helpful to do a recipe classification. Most recipes fall into one of the above categories. Using classifications instead of each recipe reduces the workload.
18 Food Preparation HACCP Evaluation Establishment Food Ingredients Recipe Manager Recipe Name Preparation Procedures Temp. Before Cooking Temp. During Cooking Temp. After Cooking Cooling Time
19 Flow Chart Product flow-charting is a method to determine the Critical Control Points. Receiving check date - best before or expiry date name of producer temperature upon delivery of high-risk food Cold temperature 4ºC (40ºF) or less separate area for dairy, meat & vegetable products raw foods separate from cooked Storage Dry off the floor product rotation Preparation no longer than 30 minutes proper thawing method for frozen foods cooking method record final cooking temperature Service temperature of foods Storage cooling methods temperature control Reheat check time and record temperature risk factors of food
21 HACCP Summary Problems Purchasing: serve raw foods free from bacteria cooked foods must be free of dangerous bacteria Harmful ingredients: foreign objects chemicals Solutions purchase from the safest possible source foods from approved sources will have an inspection marking on them employees must protect food from contamination by foreign objects and chemicals Cross-contamination by: hands equipment proper handwashing procedure proper cleaning and sanitizing Food production: food left out at room temperature no food left out longer than 30 minutes work in small batches Hot food services: evaporative surface cooling is a problem cook food to the proper center temperature for a sufficient time to reduce the pathogenic population by almost 100% Control Hot/Cold holding, Transport, & Service. salad bars buffets Controlling cooling: spores germinate during cooling and fast reheating Control leftovers or prepared food. cold temperatures of 4 C (40 F) or less hot temperatures of 60 C (140 F)or more cool foods as quickly as possible never cool a product thicker than 2 ice baths will reduce the temperature faster reheat to original cooking temperature for at least 15 seconds use a stove, oven or microwave to reheat foods, not hot holding equipment
22 Environmental Checklist Daily Temperature Form Food Complaint Forms Inventory Form
23 Environmental Check List Objective: To assess staff performance, food storage and service against a set standard in order to identify substandard practices. Personnel Criteria Yes No 1 Head and facial hair covered with hair net or other adequate restraint. 2 Uniforms and aprons are tidy and clean 3 Employees are free from diseases that may be spread through food 4 Employees wash hands frequently at conveniently located hand sinks. The hand sinks are equipped with liquid soap & individual hand towels. 5 Employees wear minimal amount of jewellery (wedding rings and watch). 6 Employees are aware of proper hand washing techniques and the procedure is posted. Receiving Area Yes No 1 Receiving area is clean and free from food debris, boxes, cans, refuse, rodents and insects 2 Outside doors are kept closed 3 Inventory form completed immediately upon receipt. 4 Food supplies are moved to proper storage area within the time allotted. (10 minutes) 5 Shelves are placed to permit floor cleaning 15 cm (6 inches) off the floor. 6 Walls, floors, and shelves are clean. 7 All food is stored off the floor. 8 Storage area is dry and well ventilated. 9 Shelves are placed away from walls to permit ventilation and easy cleaning. 10 Open bulk food supplies are stored in labelled plastic or metal containers with tight fitting lids. 11 Non-food supplies are stored separately. Refrigerator/Freezer Storage Yes No 1 Walls, floors and shelves are free of spills and debris. 2 Refrigerator shelves are cleaned according to schedule. 3 Proper temperatures are maintained 4 C (40 F) in refrigerator and -18 C (0 F) in the freezer. 4 Accurate thermometers are in all units. 5 Cooked foods are stored above raw foods. 6 Frost build up is kept to a minimum. 7 Foods are dated and rotated according to FIFO (First In, First Out)
24 8 All frozen meat, poultry and fish is thawed in the refrigerator, under cold running water or in a microwave oven. Food Preparation Area Yes No 1 Food preparation equipment cleaned and sanitized after each use. 2 Food preparation surfaces cleaned and sanitized after each use. 3 Dishwasher meets health requirements. 4 Manual dishwashing procedure being carried out properly. 5 Food contact surfaces and utensils cleaned and sanitized after use. 6 Floors, walls and ceilings are clean and in good repair. 7 Storage for dishes, utensils and food preparation equipment is kept clean. Cleaning Schedule Yes No 1 Stoves cleaned daily. 2 Ovens cleaned weekly. 3 Fridges cleaned weekly. 4 Freezer cleaned every 3 months. 5 Exhaust hood cleaned at least every 3 months. 6 Dishwasher cleaned weekly. 7 All other equipment cleaned after used.
25 Daily Food Temperatures Date Time Dairy Cold Meat Cold Fridge Freezer Cooking Temps Comments
26 Initial Report of a Food Complaint Involving Illness This form must be completed as accurately as possible by the supervisor. 1. Name, address, telephone number of the person reporting the incident. 2. Number of known or suspect cases: Case Name Age Staff or Client Address & Phone Number Name & addresses of physicians or hospitals who have seen or admitted patients: 4. Suspect Meal: What food and drinks did each person consume? How suspect meal was prepared including the source of the foods?
27 5. Onset of symptoms: 1 Case Date Time Type of symptoms: Symptoms Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Nausea Vomiting Cramps (abdominal) Loose stool Watery Diarrhoea Dehydration Fever Chills Muscle Aches Perspiration Dizziness Headache Malaise
28 7. Duration & severity of symptoms: Case Number: Other information and action taken.
29 Inventory Form High Risk Foods Product name Date received Expiry/Best before date Temperature Time of permanent storage The above form is to be completed when the food products are received.
31 Food Poisoning Food poisoning usually results from eating foods contaminated with harmful bacteria. The bacteria or poisons (toxins) infect our digestive tract, which can result in illness. Bacteria, also known as germs, are tiny organisms that can be seen only by a microscope. Bacteria cannot move readily except in watery fluids. They depend on rodents, insects, dust particles, droplets of moisture (coughs or sneezes), hands and pieces of clothing to carry them from one place to another. Most bacteria are harmless and many are even helpful. Some, however, are potentially dangerous organisms responsible for much suffering and the occasional death. Ninetyfive percent of all food-borne illnesses are caused by only a few such bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the nose of healthy human beings, in faeces, in soil, in the digestive tract of animals and on raw vegetables and meats. Bacteria are living organisms. They take in food, give off wastes, grow and multiply. Bacteria thrive in warm, moist foods. Bacteria can double their number every 15 minutes when the temperature is between C. Bacteria can multiply rapidly in non-acid and low-acid foods such as eggs, milk and meat. There are many bacteria which cause food poisoning, some of the common types of food poisoning are: Salmonella These bacteria are most often associated with poultry, for example chicken, turkey, and eggs. Salmonella is also associated with untreated water and domestic animals. Clostridium botulinum Clostridium botulism bacteria produce a poison or toxin that causes botulism. These bacteria are found in improperly canned foods. Home canned products and dented or damaged cans are a greater risk. Campylobacter Campylobacter is usually found in unpasteurized milk, untreated water, raw meats and poultry or domestic animals.
32 Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be found at the site of infected cuts, boils and in nasal secretions. Symptoms of food poisoning are often described as flu-like. Typical symptoms are: nausea vomiting diarrhoea fever chills abdominal cramps loss of appetite headache High Risk Foods High risk foods are those in which food-poisoning bacteria such as Salmonella grow rapidly. Keep foods hot (above 60 C/140 F) or cold (below 4 C/40 F) to prevent the growth of bacteria in these products. Raw and cooked meat, poultry and poultry salad Raw and cooked fish and fish salad Eggs Custards, puddings and whipped cream Milk and milk products Shellfish Creamy dressing Processed meat (bologna, hot dogs, ham, etc.) Gravy Meat sandwich spreads Canned meats (once opened, and combination dinners)
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