Troubleshooting and Debugging Network Applications Sasha Nedvedicky

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1 Troubleshooting and Debugging Network Applications Sasha Nedvedicky solaris-rpe Prague 1

2 What's network application all about? Network App. = Client + Net + Server we do not have all those parts under our control everything happens in time network has memory detailed logging is a MUST network is good servant, but evil master 2

3 Hey, your $!#?* crap does not work! users always blame your application don't panic, ask questions > what, does not work? > when it's happened for the first time? > how often it happens? > what do they expect? do not expect precise and correct answers 3

4 Are you talking in English? mutual misunderstanding between developer and user non native English speakers in large companies always try to draw a picture think twice, ask once use the same language level as the weakest element in com. chain 4

5 Fatal misunderstanding 5

6 Someone else's problem it's not a fault of your product (sometimes) real life example best effort is highway to hell > customer replaced some old RH servers with fedora > suddenly Solaris 8 NFS server suffered by high CPU load 6

7 ...continuation NFS server RH boxes fragments appeared here no fragments here -> there must be some crappy router between NFS server and RH boxes 7

8 Lessons learned nothing was wrong in each node, it's rather misconfiguration exploited by mutual interaction of > RH linux box > router > inefficient fragment handling on Solaris 8 special/best effort is potentially harmful Jan Postel be radical in what you send, be liberal in what you receive -> be radical always 8

9 hmm... so there is a bug at this point we have to collect as much information as possible to reproduce bug in-house. we want to get: > all possible logs (debug logs) we think might be useful > packet dump > in case server/client crashes/deadlocks, we also should be able to get coredtrace > configuration it's all enough to try out to reproduce problem 9

10 Mind the Gap 10

11 bon apetit Load balancing DNS server farm client connect meat worms food.net? load balancing DNS 11

12 still bug free... it's obvious that DNS example is misconfiguration at server side chances we have bug free software are still high even if we are trying to reproduce problem do not think you know everything, there is always some surprise waiting for you 12

13 Be evil as much as user is Users usually push your application to its limits Network itself is very hostile environment Avoid using ideal conditions when testing, try to simulate the worst conditions you can imagine 13

14 RDR Some packets are passed unnated Policy check KNOWN NAT NEW ioctl MAP NEW NAT KNOWN packet packet 14

15 Reproducing the problem client firewall server eats all fins from server to client 15

16 Tools sniffers/packet analyzers > snoop, wireshark (ethereal),... packet generators > libnet, sendip, isic, fragrouter, tcpreplay,... swiss army knife > netcat (nc), netsed, netgrep ssl tools > stunnel, openssl use anything what can help you 16

17 NetCat as SMTP server and client in this example we are going to use two instances of netcat SMTP server listening at port 2525: > nc -l -p 2525 < server.smtp SMTP client sending to server > nc localhost 2525 < client.smtp let's sent to real daemon using netcat: > nc localhost 25 < client.smtp 17

18 netgrep ngrep -d eth1 -p '.*\www\.zcu\.cz.*' tcp port 80 netsed netsed tcp s/nazdar/ahoj 18

19 TCP Proxy server client client proxy connection proxy proxy server connection 19

20 Using stunnel it is proxy providing SSL encryption to arbitrary TCP application there are two modes > server mode (non SSL server) > client mode (non SSL client) 20

21 Building SSL app. proxy it is useful when dealing with interoperability issues customer asks: why your application is so slow when talking to server extra-fast-server? the application from extra-cost-vendor is much faster 21

22 SSL proxy ssl only client ssl only server server tunnel client tunnel proxy (plain only) 22

23 Mistakes misconfiguration false assumptions every assumption must be verified you are seeing different logfiles and different packet dumps lack of luck 23

24 thank you for your time Sasha Nedvedicky 24

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