CS615 - Aspects of System Administration

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1 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 1 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration SMTP, HTTP Department of Computer Science Stevens Institute of Technology Jan Schaumann

2 Send me an ! CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 2 Start an EC2 instance and send a mail from it to with a subject line of CS615 - SMTP Exercise.

3 /var/log/maillog CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 3 Sending... Apr 11 21:23:47 localhost postfix/pickup[7534]: A57862E4B: uid=1000 from=<fedora> Apr 11 21:23:47 localhost postfix/cleanup[7561]: A57862E4B: message-id=< Apr 11 21:23:47 localhost postfix/qmgr[7535]: A57862E4B: localdomain>, size=496, nrcpt=1 (queue active) Apr 11 21:23:48 localhost postfix/smtp[7563]: A57862E4B: u>, relay=stevens.edu.s9a1.psmtp.com[ ]:25, delay=1.2, delays=0.05/0.01/0.18/1, dsn=2.0.0, status=sent (250 Thanks) Apr 11 21:23:48 localhost postfix/qmgr[7535]: A57862E4B: removed

4 /var/log/maillog CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 4 Receiving... <mail.info>apr 11 17:27:04 panix postfix/smtpd[19962]: connect from na3sys009aog122.obsmtp.com[ ] <mail.info>apr 11 17:27:05 panix postfix/smtpd[19962]: NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from na3sys009aog122.obsmtp.com[ ]: Sender address rejected: Domain not found; proto=smtp helo=<na3sys009aog122.obsmtp.com> <mail.info>apr 11 17:27:05 panix postfix/smtpd[19962]: disconnect from na3sys009aog122.obsmtp.com[ ]

5 The Mail System CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 5 Divided into Mail User Agent or MUA, such as mutt, Mail.app, Outlook,... Mail Transfer Agent or MTA, such as postfix, sendmail, qmail,... Mail Delivery Agent or MDA, such as procmail Access Agent providing access via POP, IMAP etc.

6 Sending CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 6 Let s try this again... $ ssh linux-lab.cs.stevens.edu $ mail Cc: Subject: Act I, Scene I When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain? ^D $

7 Sending CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 7 Let s try this again... $ ssh linux-lab.cs.stevens.edu $ mail Cc: Subject: Act I, Scene I When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain? ^D $

8 Receiving mail CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 8 <mail.info>apr 11 20:22:39 panix postfix/smtpd[313]: connect from na3sys009aog131.obsmtp.com[ ] <mail.info>apr 11 20:22:39 panix postfix/smtpd[313]: B4A : client=na3sys009aog131.obsmtp.com[ ] <mail.info>apr 11 20:22:40 panix postfix/cleanup[19415]: B4A : <mail.info>apr 11 20:22:40 panix spamd[15581]: spamd: processing message for spamd:1004 <mail.info>apr 11 20:22:47 panix postfix/qmgr[639]: B4A : removed

9 Anatomy of an message CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 9 Date: Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) From: Jan Schaumann To: Subject: Act I, Scene I X-Mailer: mail (GNU Mailutils 2.2) When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain?

10 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 10 Anatomy of an message From Sat Apr 11 20:22: X-Original-To: Received: by panix.netmeister.org (Postfix, from userid 1004) id B A3; Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) Received: from na3sys009aog131.obsmtp.com (na3sys009aog131.obsmtp.com [ ]) by panix.netmeister.org (Postfix) with SMTP id B4A for Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) Received: from warp2.stevens.edu ([ ]) by na3sys009aob131.postini.com ([ ]) with SMTP ID Sat, 11 Apr :22:39 PDT Received: from psmtp.com (na3sys009amx170.postini.com [ ]) by warp2.stevens.edu (Postfix) with SMTP id 20F3811FF6B for Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) Received: from na3sys009aog122.obsmtp.com ([ ]) by na3sys009amx170.postini.com ([ ]) with SMTP; Sun, 12 Apr :22:38 GMT Received: from nexus.stevens.edu ([ ]) by na3sys009aob122.postini.com ([ ]) with SMTP ID Sat, 11 Apr :22:38 PDT Received: from avalon.srcit.stevens-tech.edu (nemo.srcit.stevens-tech.edu [ ]) by nexus.stevens.edu (Postfix) with ESMTP id 3893D181DB8 for Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) Received: by avalon.srcit.stevens-tech.edu (Postfix, from userid 10235) id 2D C7; Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) To: Subject: Act I, Scene I X-Mailer: mail (GNU Mailutils 2.2) Message-Id: Date: Sat, 11 Apr :22: (EDT) From: (Jan Schaumann) Content-Length: 67 Lines: 2 When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain?

11 Anatomy of an message CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 11 An consists of: mandatory headers (such as From, Delivered-To:,...) optional headers (such as From:, To:, Subject:,...) the (optional) body of the message

12 Who to hand the mail to? CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 12 $ host -t mx stevens.edu stevens.edu mail is handled by 20 stevens.edu.s9a2.psmtp.com. stevens.edu mail is handled by 30 stevens.edu.s9b1.psmtp.com. stevens.edu mail is handled by 10 stevens.edu.s9a1.psmtp.com. stevens.edu mail is handled by 40 stevens.edu.s9b2.psmtp.com. $

13 By the way... CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 13 $ whois psmtp.com [...] Registrant Name: DNS Admin Registrant Organization: Google Inc. Registrant Street: 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Registrant City: Mountain View Registrant State/Province: CA Registrant Postal Code: Registrant Country: US Registrant Phone: Registrant Phone Ext: Registrant Fax: [...]

14 Sending mail... CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 14 $ telnet stevens.edu.s9a1.psmtp.com 25 Trying Connected to stevens.edu.s9a1.psmtp.com. Escape character is ^]. 220 Postini ESMTP 225 y713_pstn_c4 ready. CA Business and Professions Code Section forbids use of this system for unsolicited electronic mail advertisements. helo avalon.srcit.stevens-tech.edu 250 Postini says hello back mail from: 250 Ok rcpt to: 250 Ok data 354 Feed me Subject: Act I, Scene I When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain?. 250 Thanks quit 221 Catch you later Connection closed by foreign host.

15 SMTP Codes CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 15 SMTP codes consist of three digits in five classes: 1xx Mail server has accepted the command, but does not yet take any action. A confirmation message is required. 2xx Mail server has completed the task successfully without errors. 3xx Mail server has understood the request, but requires further information to complete it. 4xx Mail server has encountered a temporary failure. If the command is repeated without any change, it might be completed. Try again, it may help! 5xx Mail server has encountered a fatal error. Your request can t be processed.

16 Sending the mail CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 16 IP > : S : (0) IP > : S : (0) ack IP > :. ack 1 IP > : P 1:170(137) ack 1 IP > : P 1:28(27) ack 170 IP > :. ack 28 [...] IP > :. ack 508 IP > : P 266:278(12) ack 508 IP > : P 508:514(6) ack 278 IP > : F 514:514(0) ack 278 IP > :. ack 514 IP > : P 278:299(21) ack 514 IP > : F 299:299(0) ack 514 IP > :. ack 515

17 Receiving the mail CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 17 IP > : S : (0) IP > : S : (0) ack IP > :. ack 1 IP > : PTR? in-addr.arpa. (44) IP > : /4/4 (227) IP > : AAAA? na3sys009aog102.obsmtp.com. (44) IP > : /1/0 (110) IP > : A? na3sys009aog102.obsmtp.com. (44) IP > : /4/4 (203) IP > : P 1:41(40) ack 1 IP > :. ack 41 [...] IP > : P 71:106(35) ack 81 IP > : A? na3sys009aog102.obsmtp.com. (44) IP > : /4/4 (203) IP > : A? sbl.spamhaus.org. (48)

18 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 18 IP > : NXDomain 0/1/0 (104) IP > : A? bl.spamcop.net. (46) IP > : NXDomain 0/1/0 (99) IP > : P 81:95(14) ack 106 IP > :. ack 95 IP > : P 106:112(6) ack 95 IP > : P 95:132(37) ack 112 IP > :. ack 132 IP > : P 112:1276(1164) ack 132 IP > :. ack 1276 IP > : P 1276:1348(72) ack 132 IP > : P 132:169(37) ack 1348 IP > : P 169:184(15) ack 1354 IP > : F 184:184(0) ack 1354 IP > : F 1354:1354(0) ack 184 IP > :. ack 1355 IP > :. ack 185

19 Service Considerations CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 19 outsourcing versus in-house privacy considerations spam protections phishing protections mail delivery cannons for notifications vs. spam lists high volume traffic demands fine-tuned systems high volume traffic implications on logging See also:

20 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 20 Hooray! 5 Minute Break

21 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 21 Hypertext Transfer Protocol Today s Universal Internet Pipe

22 Set up an HTTP server. CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 22 Start an EC2 instance and set up an HTTP server to listen on port Add a simple index.html file containing your username. When done, paste the full URL (ie into the class IRC channel #cs615asa. https://webchat.freenode.net/

23 HTTP: Hypertext CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 23 W W W The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it s short for. Douglas Adams

24 HTTP: Hypertext CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 24

25 HTTP CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 25 Hypertext Transfer Protocol RFC2616

26 HTTP CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 26 HTTP is a request/response protocol.

27 The Hypertext Transfer Protocol CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 27 HTTP is a request/response protocol: 1. client sends a request to the server 2. server responds

28 The Hypertext Transfer Protocol CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 28 HTTP is a request/response protocol: 1. client sends a request to the server request method URI protocol version request modifiers client information 2. server responds

29 CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 29 HTTP: A client request $ telnet 80 Trying Connected to Escape character is ^]. GET / HTTP/1.0

30 The Hypertext Transfer Protocol CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 30 HTTP is a request/response protocol: 1. client sends a request to the server request method URI protocol version request modifiers client information 2. server responds status line (including success or error code) server information entity metainformation content

31 HTTP: a server response CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 31 HTTP/ OK Date: Sun, 31 Mar :54:40 GMT Set-Cookie: PREF=ID=c5eb56d629b347cc:FF=0:TM= :LM= : S=sIdRFdxV9YvtQOlG; expires=tue, 31-Mar :54:40 GMT; path=/; domain=.google.com Set-Cookie: NID=67=hvBnOob2NoZW4haTJVfajbcyn_jips50lKRe-8nawzdCZ6AukNR _s8cnhd6za-z2721na3tplrnxt-2zyiui23j4kdsdf8gg--pmgsmoj3jv5frezqg1elhjv92hl-w2; expires=mon, 30-Sep :54:40 GMT; path=/; domain=.google.com; HttpOnly Server: gws <!doctype html><html itemscope="itemscope" itemtype="http://schema.org/webpage"> <head><meta content="search the...

32 The Hypertext Transfer Protocol CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 32 Server status codes: 1xx Informational; Request received, continuing process 2xx Success; The action was successfully received, understood, and accepted 3xx Redirection; Further action must be taken in order to complete the request 4xx Client Error; The request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled 5xx Server Error; The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request

33 HTTP: A client request CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 33 $ telnet 80 Trying Escape character is ^]. GET / HTTP/1.0 HTTP/ Found Date: Sun, 12 Apr :37:23 GMT Server: Apache/ (Debian) Location: Vary: Accept-Encoding Content-Length: 297 Connection: close Content-Type: text/html; charset=iso <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"> <html><head> <title>302 Found</title> </head><body> <h1>found</h1> <p>the document has moved <a href="http://www.stevens.edu/ses/cs">here</a>.</p> <hr> <address>apache/ (Debian) Server at Port 80</address> </body></html>

34 HTTP: A client request CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 34 $ telnet 80 Trying Connected to mc us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com. Escape character is ^]. GET /ses/cs HTTP/1.1 Host: HTTP/ OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 Date: Sun, 12 Apr :19:58 GMT Last-Modified: Sun, 12 Apr :44:48 GMT Server: nginx X-Generator: Drupal 7 (http://drupal.org) X-Request-ID: v-4a62ae68-e151-11e4-bfda d545c X-Varnish: transfer-encoding: chunked Connection: keep-alive 35e2 <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en" dir="ltr"> <head>

35 HTTP - more than just text CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 35 HTTP is a Transfer Protocol serving data, not any specific text format. Accept-Encoding client header can specify different formats such as gzip, Shared Dictionary Compression over HTTP (SDCH) etc. corresponding server headers: Content-Type and Content-Encoding

36 HTTP - more than just static data CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 36 HTTP is a Transfer Protocol what is transferred need not be static; resources may generate different data to return based on many variables. CGI resource is executed, needs to generate appropriate response headers server-side scripting (ASP, PHP, Perl,...) client-side scripting (JavaScript/ECMAScript/JScript,...) applications based on HTTP, using: AJAX RESTful services JSON, XML, YAML to represent state and abstract information

37 HTTP overload CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 37 Ways to mitigate HTTP overload: DNS round-robin to many web servers load balancing web cache / accelerators (reverse proxies) content delivery networks These solutions depend on the location within the network and the scale of the environment.

38 Load Balancing CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 38

39 Load Balancing: Inbound CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 39

40 Load Balancing: Outbound CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 40

41 Load Balancing: Direct Server Return CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 41

42 Content Delivery Networks CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 42

43 Content Delivery Networks CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 43 cache content in strategic locations determine location to serve from via geomapping of IP addresses (beware IPv6 aggregation!) often uses a separate domain to distinguish small objects/large objects or dynamic content/static content either out-sourced or in-house (if your organization is a Tier-1 or Tier-2 peering partner) request routing happens via Global Server Load Balancing, DNS-based request routing, anycasting etc. provides vast amounts of interesting data about your clients (see

44 Reading CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 44 SMTP: RFC 821, 2821 aliases(5), mail(1) sendmail(8), postfix(8)

45 Reading CS615 - Aspects of System Administration Slide 45 HTTP etc.: RFC 2616, 2818, REST: CDNs: https://aws.amazon.com/cloudfront/

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