How Americans Value Public Libraries in Their Communities

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1 NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE DECEMBER 11, 2013 How Americans Value Public Libraries in Their Communities 54% of Americans have used a public library in the past year, and 72% live in a library household. Most say libraries are very important to their communities. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THIS REPORT: Kathryn Zickuhr, Research Associate, Internet Lee Rainie, Director, Internet Kristen Purcell, Associate Director, Internet Maeve Duggan, Research Assistant, Internet URL: RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, December 2013, How Americans value public libraries in their communities.

2 1 Summary of Findings Americans strongly value the role of public libraries in their communities, both for providing access to materials and resources and for promoting literacy and improving the overall quality of life. Most Americans say they have only had positive experiences at public libraries, and value a range of library resources and services. The importance of public libraries to their communities Some 90% of Americans ages 16 and older said that the closing of their local public library would have an impact on their community, with 63% saying it would have a major impact. Asked about the personal impact of a public library closing, two-thirds (67%) of Americans said it would affect them and their families, including 29% who said it would have a major impact. If your local public library closed, what impact would that have on you and your family? On your community as a whole? Among all Americans ages 16+ Major impact Minor impact No impact Total impact Impact on you and your family Impact on your community 29 Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18-September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones Moreover, the vast majority of Americans ages 16 and older say that public libraries play an important role in their communities: 95% of Americans ages 16 and older agree that the materials and resources available at public libraries play an important role in giving everyone a chance to succeed; 95% say that public libraries are important because they promote literacy and a love of reading; 94% say that having a public library improves the quality of life in a community; 81% say that public libraries provide many services people would have a hard time finding elsewhere. Meanwhile, while most Americans feel that libraries have done a good job embracing new technology, they are split on whether public libraries are as essential as they were in the past for finding information:

3 2 Just 34% of Americans ages 16 and older of say that public libraries have not done a good job keeping up with new technologies, while 55% disagree. 52% of Americans say that people do not need public libraries as much as they used to because they can find most information on their own, while 46% disagreed. Though many library services are seen as important, there are varying levels of enthusiasm for different services Some 91% of Americans say they have had some exposure to libraries in the past, and we asked these respondents a series of questions about the importance of various library services to them and their families. 1 Americans strongly value library services such as access to books and media; having a quiet, safe place to spend time, read, or study; and having librarians to help people find information. Other services, such as assistance finding and applying for jobs, are more important to particular groups, including those with lower levels of education or household income. How important are these library services to you and your family? Among Americans ages 16+ who have ever used a public library or had a household member use a public library, the percentage who say these services are Books and media Librarian assistance Having a quiet, safe place Research resources Programs for youth Internet, computers, printers Very Important Somewhat Important Net Women, African-Americans and Hispanics, adults who live in lower-income households, and adults with lower levels of educational attainment are more likely than other groups to declare all the library services we asked about very important. Adults ages Programs for adults Help applying for gov't services Help finding, applying for job are also more likely than younger or older respondents to say many of the services are very important, as are parents with minor children. Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18-September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones This includes the 86% of Americans ages 16 and older who have ever visited a library or used a library website, and the 54% of Americans who say other members of their household are library users.

4 3 Libraries are also particularly valued by those who are unemployed, retired, or searching for a job, as well as those living with a disability and internet users who lack home internet access: 56% of internet users without home access say public libraries basic technological resources (such as computers, internet, and printers) are very important to them and their family, compared with 33% of all respondents. 49% of unemployed and retired respondents say they librarian assistance in finding information to be very important, compared with 41% of employed respondents. 47% of job seekers say help finding or applying for a job is very important to them and their families. 40% of those living with a disability say help applying for government services is very important, compared with 27% of those without a disability. Most Americans know where their local library is, but many are unfamiliar with all the services they offer. Libraries are well known in their communities and they are usually easy to get to and relatively easy to navigate. Asked about their ability to access public libraries and public library websites: How well-informed do you feel about the different services your public library offers? Do you feel like you know 91% of Americans say they know where the closest public library is to where they currently live; among these respondents, most said the closest public library is five miles or less away from their home. 93% of Americans say that it would be easy to visit a public library in person if they wanted to, with 62% saying it would be very easy. Similarly, 82% of Americans overall say it would be easy to use their local public library s website, with 47% saying it would be very easy. 91% of Americans who have ever used a public library All or most Some of what it offers Not much Nothing at all say it is not difficult to find what they re looking for, including 35% who say it is very easy Based on Americans ages 16+ who have ever used a public library (n=5,393) Despite the fact that libraries are easily available to most, there are large numbers of Americans who say they are not sure about all the services libraries offer. Echoing the findings of our 2012 survey, 23% of those who have ever used a public library said they feel like they know all or most of the service and programs their library offers, while a plurality (47%) said that they know some of what it offers. About one in five (20%) say they don t know very much about what is offered, and 10% say they know nothing at all.

5 4 54% of Americans have used a public library in the past 12 months, and 72% live in a library household Over half (54%) of Americans ages 16 and older have used a public library in some way in the past 12 months, whether by visiting in person or using a public library website: 81% of Americans ages 16 and older have visited a public library or bookmobile at one point or another in their lives; 48% of Americans have done so in the past 12 months, down from 53% in % of those ages 16 and older have visited a public library website; 30% of Americans have done so in the past 12 months, up from 25% in Additionally, among parents with minor children living at home, 70% say that a child in the house has visited a public library or bookmobile in the past 12 months. Taken together, this means that 72% of all Americans ages 16 and older have either used a public library in the past 12 months or live in a household where another family member or a child is an active recent user of the library. Most Americans who have ever used a public library have had positive experiences Among all Americans who have ever used a public library: 94% said that based on their own experiences, they would say that public libraries are welcoming, friendly place. 91% said that they personally have never had a negative experience using a public library, either in person or online. 67% said that the public library nearest to where they live could be described as a nice, pleasant space to be ; another 22% say it s an okay space, but could use some improvements.

6 5 Table of Contents Summary of Findings 1 Table of Contents 5 Acknowledgements 6 About 7 Section 1: An Overview of Americans Public Library Use 9 Public library use and library website use 9 Library households 13 Library card holders 13 Section 2: Public Libraries Importance and Impact 14 Importance of public library services 14 Impact of a local public library closing 20 Section 3: Perceptions of Public Libraries 23 Americans perceptions of public libraries 23 Access to public libraries 25 Awareness of public library services and ease of findings things 26 Experiences at public libraries 28 Survey Questions 29 Methods 37

7 6 Acknowledgements A number of experts have helped the Pew Research Center s Internet Project in this research effort: Andrea Berstler, Director, Wicomico Public Library, Maryland Daphna Blatt, Office of Strategic Planning, The New York Public Library Richard Chabran, Adjunct Professor, University of Arizona, e-learning consultant Larra Clark, American Library Association, Office for Information Technology Policy Mike Crandall, Professor, Information School, University of Washington Catherine De Rosa, Vice President, OCLC LaToya Devezin, American Library Association Spectrum Scholar & librarian, Louisiana Amy Eshelman, Program Leader for Education, Urban Libraries Council Christie Hill, Community Relations Director, OCLC Sarah Houghton, Director, San Rafael Public Library, California Mimi Ito, Research Director of Digital Media & Learning Hub, University of California Humanities Research Institute Chris Jowaisas, Senior Program Officer, Global Libraries, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Patrick Losinski, Chief Executive Officer, Columbus Library, Ohio Jo McGill, Director, Northern Territory Library, Australia Dwight McInvaill, Director, Georgetown County Library, South Carolina Rebecca Miller, Editorial Director, Library Journal & School Library Journal Bobbi Newman, Blogger, Librarian By Day Annie Norman, State Librarian, Delaware Carlos Manjarrez, Director, Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation, Institute of Museum & Library Services Johana Orellana-Cabrera, American Library Association Spectrum Scholar & librarian, Texas Mayur Patel, Vice President for Strategy & Assessment, John S. & James L. Knight Foundation Gail Sheldon, Director, Oneonta Public Library, Alabama Sharman Smith, Executive Director, Mississippi Library Commission Global Libraries staff at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

8 7 About this Report This report is part of a larger research effort by the Pew Research Center s Internet & American Life Project that is exploring the role libraries play in people s lives and in their communities. The research is underwritten by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. This report contains findings from a nationally representative survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older fielded July 18-September 30, It was conducted in English and Spanish on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for the full sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. For analysis in the report is based on those who have ever visited libraries or used library websites, n=5,393 respondents ages 16 and older, and the margin of error is plus or minus 1.5 percentage points. Due to the large sample size, this report includes analyses of subgroups that are normally too small to report, such as Asian Americans. As the survey was conducted in English and Spanish, we were only able to capture the responses of English-speaking Asian Americans, who are not representative of all Asian Americans living in the United States. For instance, a 2012 Pew Research Center survey found that Asian Americans who say they are proficient in English are more likely to be younger, have higher levels of education, and are more likely to have been born in the United States. 2 Learn more at pewsocialtrends.org/asianamericans. Unlike standard Pew Research surveys of adults 18 and older, this report also contains data on Americans ages However, any analyses of behaviors based on education level or household income level exclude this younger age group and are based solely on adults ages 18 and older, which is also noted throughout the report. Disclaimer from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation This report is based on research funded in part by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The findings and conclusions contained within are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect positions or policies of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2 Interviews for the 2012 Pew Research Center survey of Asian Americans were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Vietnamese, Tagalog, Japanese, Korean, and Hindi.

9 8 About the Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. The center studies U.S. politics and policy views; media and journalism; internet and technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and U.S. social and demo-graphic trends. All of the center s reports are available at pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Alan Murray, President Jon Cohen, Vice President, Research Elizabeth Mueller Gross, Vice President Paul Taylor, Executive Vice President, Special Projects Andrew Kohut, Founding Director Pew Research Center 2013

10 9 Section 1: An Overview of Americans Public Library Use Most Americans ages 16 and older in the United States have used a public library at some point in their lives, and about half have used a public library in the past year. A September 2013 Pew Research Center survey finds that 61% of those ages 16 and older have a library card, which is statistically similar to the 63% of Americans who said they had a library card in November Looking closer at library use, we find: 81% of Americans ages 16 and older have visited a public library or bookmobile at one point or another in their lives; 48% of Americans have done so in the past 12 months, down from 53% in % of those ages 16 and older have visited a public library website; 30% of Americans have done so in the past 12 months, up from 25% in Taken together, 86% of Americans ages 16 and older have ever used a public library, either by visiting a public library or bookmobile in person or accessing a library website. Some 54% of Americans ages 16 and older have used a public library in some way in the past 12 months, including 73% of those with a library card. Additionally, among parents with minor children living at home, 70% say that a child in the house has visited a public library or bookmobile in the past 12 months. Added up, this means that 72% of all Americans ages 16 and older have either used a public library in the past 12 months or live in a household where another family member or a child uses the library. This chapter provides some demographic details about each of those library-using groups. Public library use and library website use Visiting a public library or bookmobile in person Some 81% of Americans ages 16 and older have visited a public library at one point or another in their lives, and 48% of Americans have visited a public library or a bookmobile last 12 months. This represents a statistically significant five percentage-point change in public library attendance from late 2012, when 53% of those ages 16 and older said they had visited a library or bookmobile in the previous 12 months. Recent library visitors are more likely to be women, those under age 65, adults who have college degrees, and adults who live in households earning $100,000 or more.

11 10 Public library and bookmobile visitors Among all Americans ages 16+, the percentage who have ever visited a public library or bookmobile in person, and the percentage who visited one in the past 12 months % who have ever visited a public library in person % who visited a library in the past 12 months All Americans ages 16+ (n=6,224) 81% 48% a Men (n=2,840) b Women (n=3,384) 83 a 50 a Race/ethnicity a White, Non-Hispanic (n=4,323) 83 c 48 b Black, Non-Hispanic (n=697) 80 c 47 c Hispanic, English and Spanish speaking (n=739) d Asian-American, English speaking (n=160) Age a (n=214) 86 e 59 bcd b (n=945) 81 e 48 e c (n=1,590) 81 e 52 de d (n=1,842) 82 e 46 e e 65+ (n=1,526) Household income* a Less than $30,000/yr (n=1,682) b $30,000-$49,999 (n=1,030) c $50,000-$74,999 (n=787) 85 ab 51 a d $75,000-$99,999 (n=624) 85 ab 52 ab e $100,000-$149,000 (n=612) 87 ab 56 abf f $150,000+ (n=393) 86 ab 48 Education attainment* a No high school diploma (n=454) b High school grad (n=1,667) 77 a 39 a c Some College (n=1,627) 85 ab 51 ab d College + (n=2,225) 86 abc 58 abc Parent of minor a Parent (n=1,538) b b Non-parent (n=4,658) Community type a Urban (n=1,922) c b Suburban (n=3,083) 83 ac 49 c c Rural (n=1,219) * The household income and education attainment figures are only among adults ages 18 and older. Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter ( a ) or another letter indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait. Source: Pew Research Center s Internet & American Life Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18- September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.

12 11 Among those who have visited a public library or bookmobile in person in the past year, 14% visit at least once a week, 17% said they visit several times a month, and 26% said they visit at least once a month. An additional 43% of those who have visited a public library in the past year say they visit the library less often than once a month. Public library website users Some 44% of those ages 16 and older have ever visited a public library website and 30% say they did so in the past 12 months up from 25% in late Groups more likely than others to have used library websites include women, whites and African-Americans, those under age 50, adults with higher educational attainment, adults living in households earning $75,000 or more, parents of minor children, and urban residents. Among those who have visited a public library website in the past year, 10% say they visit at least once a week, 15% visit several times a month, and 23% visit at least once a month. An additional 52% of those who have visited a library website in the past year say they use the website less often than once a month.

13 12 Public library website users Among all Americans ages 16+, the percentage who have ever used a public library website, and the percentage who have used a public library website in the past 12 months % who have ever used a public library website % who used a library website in the past 12 months All Americans ages 16+ (n=6,224) a Men (n=2,840) b Women (n=3,384) 49 a 34 a Race/ethnicity a White, Non-Hispanic (n=4,323) 45 c 31 c b Black, Non-Hispanic (n=697) 48 c 31 c Hispanic, English and Spanish speaking (n=739) d Asian-American, English speaking (n=160) Age a (n=214) 49 de 35 de b (n=945) 56 cde 36 de c (n=1,590) 50 de 35 de d (n=1,842) 39 e 28 e e 65+ (n=1,526) Household income* a Less than $30,000/yr (n=1,682) b $30,000-$49,999 (n=1,030) c $50,000-$74,999 (n=787) 46 a 32 a d $75,000-$99,999 (n=624) 49 ab 35 ab e $100,000-$149,000 (n=612) 57 abcd 42 abcdf f $150,000+ (n=393) 49 ab 34 Education attainment* a No high school diploma (n=454) b High school grad (n=1,667) 33 a 20 a c Some College (n=1,627) 50 ab 34 ab d College + (n=2,225) 60 abc 45 abc Parent of minor a Parent (n=1,538) 50 ab 37 b b Non-parent (n=4,658) Community type a Urban (n=1,922) 48 bc 33 c b Suburban (n=3,083) 44 c 30 c c Rural (n=1,219) * The household income and education attainment figures are only among adults ages 18 and older. Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter ( a ) or another letter indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait. Source: Pew Research Center s Internet & American Life Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18- September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.

14 13 Overall public library use and changes over time Taken together, 86% of Americans ages 16 and older have ever used a public library or library website, and 54% have personally used a library or library website in the past 12 months. This represents a statistically significant five percentage-point decrease from the 59% of Americans who said they had visited a library in the previous 12 months in We also asked all Americans who have ever used a public library or visited a public library website (86% of those ages 16 and older) how their library use has changed in the past five years. Some 16% said their library use has increased, and 57% said it has stayed about the same; another 25% said their library use has decreased in that time. Library households As noted above, 54% of Americans ages 16 and older have personally used a public library or website in the past 12 months, and a similar proportion (54%) say other members of their household are library users. Additionally, in a separate question asked of parents with minor children living at home, 70% say that a child in the house has visited a public library or bookmobile in the past 12 months. Taken together, this means that 72% of all Americans ages 16 and older have either used a public library in the past 12 months or live in a household where another family member or a child uses the library. In a closer look at household library use, we find: 38% of Americans have both used a public library recently and live in a household where family members use the library. 18% say that while they themselves have not used a public library recently, a family member does use the library. 15% say that they personally have used the library in the past year, but no one else in their family does. Library card holders Some 61% of Americans ages 16 and older say they have a library card for a public library. These card holders are more likely to be female, white, under the age of 65, and suburban and urban residents, and are also more likely to have higher levels of education or live in higher income households. About 21% of library card holders did not visit the library in the past 12 months, and 17% of those who have used a public library in the past year say they do not have a library card. 3 Note: In November 2012, a follow-up about library use in the past 12 months was asked as separate questions later in the interview, rather than as an immediate follow-up to the ever library use question, as done for the 2013 survey.

15 14 Section 2: Public Libraries Importance and Impact Importance of public library services Overall, 91% of Americans either have ever used a public library or said another household member uses a public library. 4 We asked these respondents who have personal or family experiences with libraries a series of questions about how important they consider various library services, including various library resources and activities. There are notable patterns in many of the answers about the importance of library services among those who have personal or family experiences with public libraries. In general, women, African-Americans and Hispanics, adults who live in lower-income households, and adults with lower levels of educational attainment are more likely than other groups to say these services are very important. Those ages are more likely than younger or older respondents to say many of the services are very important, as are parents with minor children. Urban residents with library experiences are more likely than rural residents to say some services are very important to them. How important are these public library services to you and your family? Among Americans ages 16+ who have ever used a public library or had a household member use a public library, the percentage who say these services are Books and media Librarian assistance Having a quiet, safe place Research resources Programs for youth Internet, computers, printers Programs for adults Help applying for gov't services Help finding, applying for job Very Important Somewhat Important Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18-September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones Net Adults 65 and older are the age group most likely to say that none of these library services are very important to them, and generally rate most services as less important overall. For instance, among those ages 65 and older with some public library experience,65% say that having a quiet and safe place to spend time at the library is important to them and their families overall, compared with 75% of all respondents who say this is important. 4 This includes the 86% of Americans ages 16 and older who have ever visited a library or used a library website, and the 54% of Americans who say other members of their household are library users.

16 15 Even in cases where a majority or plurality of seniors say the services are important to them, their level of enthusiasm is considerably lower than younger Americans. For example, senior citizens with library experience by a 72%- 26% margin say that access to free books and media is important to them a 46-point spread. On the other hand, those ages say such access is important by an 85%- 14% margin a 71-point gap. How important are these public library services to you and your family? Among Americans ages 16+ who have ever used a public library or had a household member use a public library, the percentage who say these services are Help finding, applying for job Help applying for gov't services Programs for adults Internet, computers, printers Programs for youth Research resources Having a quiet, safe place Not too important Not at all important Net Librarian assistance Books and media Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18-September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.

17 16 Oldest and youngest age groups least likely to say public library services are very important to them and their families Among Americans ages 16+ who have ever used a public library or had a household member use a public library, the % in each group who say these services are very important Books and media Quiet spaces Research resources Total Youth programs Librarian assistance Internet, computers, printers Total Job search assistance 0 Help applying to gov't services Programs for adults Total Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18-September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.

18 17 Blacks and Hispanics are more likely than whites and Asian-Americans to say public library services are very important to them and their families Among Americans ages 16+ who have ever used a public library or had a household member use a public library, the % in each group who say these services are very important Books and media Quiet spaces Research resources Total Whites Asian Americans* Blacks Hispanics** Youth programs Librarian assistance Internet & computers Total Whites Asian Americans* Blacks Hispanics** Job search assistance Gov t services help Programs for adults Total Whites Asian Americans* Blacks Hispanics** *among English-speaking Asian-Americans ** among English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey of 6,224 Americans ages 16 and older conducted July 18-September 30, The margin of error for the overall sample is plus or minus 1.4 percentage points. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.

19 18 Adults living in lower-income households are more likely to say public library services are very important to them and their families Among adults ages 18+ who have ever used a public library or had a household member use a public library, the % in each group who say these services are very important Books and media Quiet spaces Research resources Less than $30, At least $75, Youth programs Librarian assistance Internet & computers Less than $30, At least $75, Job search assistance Gov t services help Programs for adults Less than $30, At least $75, Source: Pew Research Center s Library Services Survey among 6,010 adults ages 18 and older. The survey was conducted July 18-September 30, The survey was conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Individual library services In addition to our basic demographic analyses, we also explored responses based on a variety of life situations and technology use factors, many of which are strongly correlated with lower households incomes and lower levels of education. These include searching for a job, living with a disability, or lacking home internet access, and are discussed in further detail below. Using the internet, computers, or printers at a public library 42% of those who are currently looking for a job say this is very important to them and their families, and 68% of job-seekers say it is either important or very important overall. 43% of those living with a disability say this is very important (67% say it is important overall), as well as 48% of those with a health problem that makes reading difficult (69% say this is important to them and their families overall). 5 56% of internet users without home access say this is very important to them and their family, and 77% say it is important overall. 5 Overall, 16% of Americans ages 16 and older say that they have a physical or health condition that makes reading difficult or challenging for them.

20 19 Having a quiet and safe place to spend time, read, or study at the library 61% of job seekers say this having a quiet and safe place to spend time, read, or study at a library is very important to them and their families, compared with 49% of respondents who are not currently looking for a job. Library assistance in applying for government programs, permits, or licenses Among those with recent library experience who are unemployed but not retired, 37% say library assistance in applying for government programs, permits or licenses is very important to them and their families. 40% of those living with a disability say library assistance is very important, compared with 27% of those without a disability. Help finding or applying for a job 47% of job seekers say receiving help at the library in finding or applying for a job is very important to them and their families. 42% of those with a health problem that makes reading difficult say receiving help at the library in finding or applying for a job is very important to them and their families. Getting help from a librarian finding information 49% of those not in the workforce say receiving assistance from a librarian in finding information is very important (including 47% of retired respondents). Those living with a disability (56%) or with a health problem that makes reading difficult (59%) are also more likely than others to say that librarian assistance is very important to them and their families. Finally, internet users who lack home internet access are more likely than other respondents to say all of these services are very important to them and their families. Non-internet users are also more likely than internet users with home access to say that many of these services are very important.

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