1 Case 48 year old man admitted complaining of hallucinations. Mild hallucinations for a year. Worsened tremor for 3 weeks and then markedly worse hallucinations last 2 days History of psoriatic arthritis, htn, essential tremor Meds: propranolol, etodolac, etanercept No history of prior psychiatric disease.
2 Examination Hr 80 RR 18 Temp 36.6 BP 125/80 Chest and cardiovascular exam normal Neuro: marked tremor, dysarthria, truncal ataxia with normal finger to nose testing. Oriented to person and place
4 Subsequent Course 12 days on ventilator Complicated by MSSA pneumonia 22 days on IV lorazepam Subsequently transferred to psychiatry; needed antipsychotic medications for hallucinations Had some benzodiazepine withdrawal on psychiatry Discharged to chem dep facility after 38 days.
5 Alcohol Withdrawal Hospitalist Case conference 21 May, 2009 William Dickey MD
7 Why talk about it? Work on a new ICU alcohol withdrawal order set Maybe things not going so well Frequent lorazepam infusions No charting of assessments when meds administered Lots of dogmatic pronouncements about what is best. No subspecialist to punt to
8 DSM IV Definition Cessation of prolonged or heavy EtOH use 2 or more of following: autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, visual tactile or auditory hallucinations, nausea and vomiting, psychomotor agitation, anxiety and grand mal seizures
9 DSM IV Definition Symptoms from #2 causing significant distress or impairment Symptoms not resulting from a general medical condition or not better accounted for by another mental disorder.
10 Time frame: A review _ _Tremors _ _Irritability _ _Seizures _Hallucinosis Delirium,disoriented Autonomic activity increases 1 st 5 days
11 Time Frame Withdrawal seizures within 2-24 hours from last drink (3% of alcoholics and 3%of those get status) Minor withdrawal symptoms (6-24 hours resolve by 48 hours) anxiety headache, nausea, GI upset. Alcoholic hallucinosis (onset resolved by hrs after last drink). Rare hallucinations without altered sensorium or delirium.
12 Time Frame Alcohol Withdrawal/Delirium tremens, onset hours after last drink with duration 1-5 days typical. Delirium (acute onset and fluctuating course, inattention and either disordered thinking or altered level of consciousness).
13 Delirium tremens A delirium with all the features, developing in context of alcohol withdrawal and with signs of autonomic hyperactivity: fever, tachycardia, diaphoresis. As with all delirium, underlying cause is primary; consider differential dx. Maybe as much as 5% risk of mortality. Hallucinations usually visual
14 Pathophysiology GABA an inhibitory neurotransmitter. In EtOH withdrawal, receptors downregulated and decreased neural activity. Increased CSF norepinephrine felt to be due to decreased Alpha2 inhibition of presynaptic norepinephrine release.
15 Assessment CIWA Ar Assessment tool RASS tool for patients on ventilator
17 CIWA Ar None to minimal < 8 Moderate 8-15 Severe 16-67
18 Are there randomized controlled trials comparing drugs? Old studies comparing benzodiazepines and antipsychotics have shown benzodiazpines superior in terms of mortality reduction and seizure prevention.
19 Treatment Most people pretty certain about what is right Not a lot of clinical trials One guideline paper Universal recommendation for benzodiazepines as cornerstone of therapy.
20 Benzodiazepines The evidence No trials re mortality sedative/hypnotics vs. placebo 5 trials re mortality sedative/hypnotics vs antipsychotic agents: metaanalysis 6.6 relative risk of death treated with antipsychotics vs. sedative/hypnotics BUT old trials e.g. chlorpromazine vs paraldehyde
21 Benzodiazepines: the evidence Cochrane review Ntais, C et al. Cochrane Library 2008 Issue 1 57 trials with total of 4051 patients Benzodiazepines offered a large benefit against alcohol withdrawal seizure compared to placebo. Data on other comparisons were very limited, thus making quantitative synthesis for various outcomes not very infomative. No conclusive evidence or even hints of superiority of one benzo over another Nonsignificant benefit in prevention of delirium
22 Benzodiazepines The evidence No trials showing more benefit from one benzodiazepine compared to another. Most commonly used in US: diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and lorazepam No trials comparing intermittent dosing with IV infusion; Some retrospective studies suggest infusion may lead to higher cumulative dose and longer duration of delirium Despite this pretty much universal recommendation of benzodiazepines as first choice medications
23 Antipsychotics Inferior to benzodiazepines in old studies Side effects: Seizures, QT prolongation, neuroleptic malgnanct syndrome No trials with atypical agents
24 Other Drugs Beta blockers not studied and risk of delirium No controlled studies of magnesium Case studies of alcohol only for prevention Small uncontrolled studies of Carbamazepine, other anticonvulsants, clonidine
25 Definition of Success in improving alcohol withdrawal management Mortality? Benchmark in DTs is 1-5% mortality and most studies show lower making comparison difficult Avoidance of intubation? Symptom control Little guidance from literature about strategies to improve any of these
26 Two strategies to consider Symptom triggered therapy Rapidly escalating doses to avoid intubation
27 Symptom triggered therapy CIWA Ar developed in outpatient Detox units. One study in inpatients Jaeger et al. Mayo Clinic Proceedings , Before and after study: benzodiazepines by symptom algorithm No difference in dose; decreased risk of progression to DTs That is what is on the order sets
28 Symptom Triggered Therapy in the ICU De Carolis et al. Pharmacotherapy (4) Retrospective review of symptoms triggered therapy to no protocol CIWA not used; they used own scale Started with lorazepam boluses but went to infusions if no response to 16mg (sic) IV lorazepam Time to adequate therapy reduced Total benzodiazepine dose reduced.
29 Aggressive Dose Escalation Gold et al, Crit Care Med (3) patients with severe alcohol withdrawal IV diazepam 10 mg IV with rapid escalation to doses of mg per dose until sedation achieved. Moved to ICU if they needed either 40 mg doses or 200 mg in 4 hours
30 Aggressive Dose escalation 47% pre and 21% post guideline needed mechanical ventilation all but one for inadequately controlled agitation rather than respiratory depression In cases where > mg doses of diazepam were needed, phenobarbital was added
31 Expert opinion Benzodiazepines first choice therapy Antipsychotic medications as additional therapy controversial Phenobarbital or propofol in patients with benzodiazepine resistance.
32 Lorazepam vs Diazepam Rapid onset of action: diazepam or lorazepam beneficial Longer duration diazepam smoother control with less breakthrough symptoms autotitration Lorazepam when there is concern about prolonged sedation (age or liver disease) Only lorazepam reliable IM
33 Lorazepam vs Diazepam IV lorazepam contains propylene glycol to keep it in solution: can be responsible for hypersosmolality, anion gap acidosis and renal failure. Recommendation: check osmolarity daily in patiens on > 1mg/kg/day lorazepam
34 Examples of dosing for Severe withdrawal Up to Date: Diazepam 5-10 mg IV every 5 minutes until calm but alert state achieved Lohr, RH in Hospital Medicine: Diazepam mg or lorazepam 3-4 mg reassess every 2 hours Mayo-Smith Guideline paper: diazepam dose Q 5-10 minutes: 5,5,10,10, then 20 mg. Or Lorazepam 1-4 mg every 5-15 minutes. Some have gone higher
35 Haloperidol: Expert opinion Mayo Smith Haloperidol as adjunct to benzodiazepines: mg iv every minutes Lohr not mentioned Kosten NEJM review significantly less effective than benzodiazepines in preventing delirium and seizures Up to Date: should not be used in the withdrawing alcoholic
36 Benzodiazepine-refractory Withdrawal Gold et al phenobarbital (patients needing more than 40 mg diazepam in an hour) escalate dose (up to mg per dose) and if still refractory add IV phenobarbital or propofol
37 Other Medications Clonidine or beta blockers primarily for effects on vital signs Obviously thiamine and other nutritional supports (check PO4) Some support for baclofen
38 Summary There is much certainty and dogma about management but not a lot of controlled trials Benzodiazepines cornerstone of therapy Lorazepam a good choice in liver disease or the elderly, but in others there may be reason to push practice toward diazepam
39 Summary Massive doses of benzodiazepines may be necessary in severe withdrawal Antipsychotics only as adjunct to benzodiazepines and even there, quite controversial Consider phenobarbital or propofol with consultation for benzodiazepine refractory withdrawal
40 Summary Symptom triggered therapy may lead to shorter duration than scheduled doses or infusions Nutritional supports particularly thiamine and PO4 and consider other diagnoses in differential as cause of delirium.
41 References Gold JA et al A strategy of escalating doses of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital administration reduces the need for mechanical ventilation in delirium tremens Critical Care Medicine , Kosten TR, Management of Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal NEJM ,
42 References Lohr, RH Acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal In Wachter R et al Hospital Medicine, Lippincott Williams and Williams Mayo-Smith, MF et al. Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium Arch Int Med. 164, (guideline paper American Society of Addiction Medicine) Weinhouse and Hoffman, RS, Alcohol Withdrawal Syndromes. Up to Date
Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Hugh Myrick, M.D., and Raymond F. Anton, M.D. Appropriate treatment of alcohol withdrawal (AW) can relieve the patient s discomfort, prevent the development of more serious
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