2 The Main Purpose of Bladder Catheterization Complete Bladder Emptying! Help maintain a healthy bladder Help maintain healthy kidneys Reduce the chances of significant urinary tract infection
3 Maintain a Healthy Bladder and Kidneys The bladder needs frequently emptying! Stagnant urine can lead to: Overgrowth of bacteria or yeast Significant infection Dirty or foul urine Bladder stones or gravel Catheter blockage with debris Bladder stones
4 Maintain Healthy Bladder and Kidneys Avoid Bladder Over-filling Bladder over-filling can lead to high bladder pressures which can cause: Poor kidney drainage ( Hydronephrosis ) That can lead to kidney Failure Bladder scarring Loss of capacity Bladder muscle damage Loss of contractility
5 High Bladder Pressures Poorly Draining Kidneys ( Hydronephrosis ) Hi Pressure! Normal Bladder Normal Kidneys Over Filled Bladder High Pressures inside
6 Result of Long Term Bladder Pressures Year s Hi Pressure! Hi Pressure! Chronic Hydronephrosis Shrunken, Damaged kidneys
7 Types of Catheters Continuous draining into a bag Foley Catheter In and Out catheters For self catheterization
8 Typical Foley Catheter Catheter draining by Gravity
9 Long Term Foley Catheter Problems Increased risk of serious infection Bladder stones Bladder spasms and pain Increased risk of bladder cancer Urethral erosion ( permanent damage) Catheter changes every 4-8 weeks Hygiene problems Sexual function limitations Bag with leg attachment Foul smelling urine
10 In and Out Catheters Self Clean intermittent Catheterization ( CIC )
11 Clean intermittent Catheterization ( CIC ) Catheter is inserted for a few moments to drain the bladder completely and then it is removed Self catheterization is done several times every day The catheter does not have a balloon or valve Catheters are reusable Male Female
12 Clean intermittent Catheterization ( CIC ) Catheter is placed temporarily Bladder is drained completely Catheter is removed Catheter is cleaned later and re-used
13 Benefits of CIC over a Foley Catheter Lower risk of serious infection and cancer Lower risk of significant urinary tract damage over time Less urethral and bladder irritation and discomfort Avoids bladder spasms caused by catheter balloons Better hygiene Fewer limitations better life style Work, sports, sexual function, travel all OK!
14 CIC is almost always Better
15 Who Can Do CIC? Almost anyone with poor bladder emptying! Baby with Spina Bifida Active folks with Spinal Cord Injury Busy Men with Prostate Enlargement
16 CIC is NOT for Everyone! Must be done reliably and on time Requires hand dexterity Some anatomic variations may prevent self- catheterization Surgical and hospital patients usually require continuous drainage
17 CIC Clean intermittent Catheterization Clean Procedure! Not sterile Catheters should be as clean as silverware Used and then cleaned and dried before next use Catheters are re-used (like silverware!) Re-use until cracks, defects or discoloration Most last at least 1 month New catheters ordered by our clinic and sent to your home
18 Types of CIC catheters Female Short Easy to store Male Long May have curved tips for easier use
19 QUESTION: What problems can arise from CIC? Bleeding and blood clots Usually minor Infection Done properly, significant infection is unusual Urinary tract injury Uncommon / rare Usually minor
20 QUESTION: Doesn t putting a catheter into the Bladder several times every day increase the risk of urinary tract infection? NO! Frequent bladder emptying helps control bacterial counts The bladder defenses work BETTER when there is no catheter in the bladder!
21 Continuous Catheterization promotes infection more than CIC Continuous Catheterization: 24 hour pathway for bacteria into the urinary tract Promotes urinary tract inflammation and injury Damaged tissues are less resistance to infection Promotes debris that nourish bacteria Promotes stones and gravel that protect bacteria Promotes bacterial slime layer which protects bacteria
22 Risk of Serious Urinary Infection A Spectrum Risk of Serious Infection High Low Urinary Retention Poor Bladder Emptying Foley Catheter CIC Normal Bladder Normal emptying
23 How do I Prevent Serious Infection with CIC? Catheterize frequently! Infrequent catheterization is the MOST common cause of significant infections! Drink lots of fluids Keep up with your best hygiene If your urine gets foul smelling or cloudy Irrigate your bladder with saline daily Increase your fluid intake Increase the frequency of catheterization
24 How Often Should I do CIC? At least 5 times every day! And whenever you feel that your bladder is full High bladder pressures can damage the bladder and kidneys and can promote serious urinary tract infection and kidney stones! The minimum CIC Schedule more frequent is even better! Wake up 7AM Coffee Break 10AM Lunch 1PM After Work 5PM Bedtime 10PM
25 QUESTION: What About Sterile Technique Doesn t that Prevent Bacteria? It is too impractical! It is not effective in keeping urine sterile The sterile technique procedure obstacle often leads to less frequent catheterization. That leads to more problems! Bacteria almost always find their way into the urinary tract in time
26 Care of CIC Catheters Keep 5-6 clean and dry catheters in a ziplock baggie Keep a second bag for used catheters Immediately after use of a clean catheter Rinse with water, if available Place the catheter in your used bag At the end of each day, clean and dry your catheters for the next day s use
27 Care of Catheters Clean Baggie with Clean Catheters ready for use! Baggie with Used catheters for cleaning later
28 Cleaning Used Catheters Wash your catheters with soap and water Rinse well to remove soap residue They should be clean like silverware Allow to air dry on a clean paper towel Store in a clean zip-lock bag until they are needed
29 Cleaning CIC Catheters There are many recipes for cleaning catheters. Recipe #1 Soak 30 minutes in mixture of 1 tablespoon bleach in 1 quart of water. Rinse well with water after. Air dry before use. Recipe #2 Soak 30 minutes in 50:50 mixture of Hydrogen Peroxide and water. Rinse well with water after. Air dry before use.
30 QUESTION: Why Not Use Antibiotics for My Foul Smelling Urine? Use of antibiotics kills bacteria for a few days, but soon new bacteria replace them! Bacteria are everywhere They enter the bladder by the catheter. This is UNAVOIDABLE New or re-used catheter no difference Iodine or soaps no difference!
31 It s like the Mice in the Garage
32 So you find mice in the garage.
33 You set traps and put out poison.
34 You catch lots of mice!
35 But 2 weeks later There are as many mice as ever! What happened?
36 You left the Garage Door Open! We re back!
37 Mice in the Garage This silly analogy helps explain why antibiotics don t work. Invader! Treatment Open Door for Returning Invaders Bacteria Antibiotics Catheter
38 Mice Bacteria Antibiotics are like mouse traps Antibiotics don t work for long because there are always new bacteria around to replace the ones that were treated! The catheterization process is the open garage door. As long as you need catheterization, the bacteria will have access to your bladder!
39 QUESTION: What about a Daily Antibiotic? Daily or frequent use of antibiotics promote bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Within a week or so, bacteria will be growing in the bladder that are antibiotic resistant. All antibiotics can cause bacterial resistance and allow return of urinary bacteria! Pseudomonas MRSA Candida
40 Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Repeated use of antibiotics can leads to bacterial resistance. People don t become resistant, their bacteria do!
41 Antibiotics Resistance When bacteria in the bladder, genitals and colon are repeatedly exposed to antibiotics, resistant bacteria are selected and promoted. Survival of the fittest! Resistant bacteria survive, sensitive bacteria don t! Charles Darwin
42 Antibiotics Resistance is Dangerous Antibiotic resistant bacteria: May not respond to standard treatments when we are seriously ill from infection! Colonize our skin, nose, mouth, colon, genital areas and homes They create a potential danger to people we live with too.
43 Our Plan to Prevent Antibiotic Resistance Use antibiotics only when we really need them. Use the right antibiotic that kills the specific bacteria involved in infection. Use the shortest course necessary. Avoid the use of multiple antibiotics. Use good hygiene to prevent spreading resistant bacteria Hand washing!
44 What is Bladder Irrigation? Alternative to antibiotics The Urology Nursing Staff can teach you to wash out your bladder with saline ( salt water) This procedure is safe if done properly Cleans the debris that promotes bacteria Allows you to control bladder bacteria and improve bladder hygiene without chemicals or antibiotics Can be done daily, weekly or as needed!
45 What is Worrisome Bleeding? Minor Bleeding: Worrisome Bleeding: Rest Drink lots of water!
46 What to Do If you have Bloody Urine Contact your doctor s office Treatment is usually not needed! Rest Bleeding may increase with activity Avoid straining! Lifting Pushing for bowel movements Drink lots of water Helps prevent blood clots Helps prevent blood clots from obstructing the urinary tract
47 Need More Information? American Urological Association National Institute of Health Spina Bifida Association National Spinal Cord Injury Association National Multiple Sclerosis Society
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