1 Machine Learning and Data Mining - Perceptron Neural Networks Nuno Cavalheiro Marques Spring Semester 2010/2011 MSc in Computer Science
2 Multi Layer Perceptron Neurons and the Perceptron Model logic with neurons (McCulloch and Pitts, 1943). x 0 usually is set to 1, for all samples. In that case w 0 is called neuron bias.
3 Multi Layer Perceptron Most Relevant Work in Neural Networks McCulloch and Pitts in 1943 Introduces Neural Networks as computing devices:a Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity. Hebb, 1949 The basic model of network self-organization. Rosenbatt,1958 Learning with a teacher and the Perceptron Minsky and Papert (1969), show that a perceptron can not learn a simple XOR multilayer (feedforward) perceptron (or MLP), and backpropagation of the error: Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams (1986)
4 Learning Perceptron Weights Backpropagation Basic Algorithm Backpropagation learning in networks of perceptrons. BP (and variants) are the best way to train MLPs. Generalized Delta Rule: w = η (E[ w])
5 Why Several Neural Network models? Models, Paradigms and Methods The exact description of a biological neuron is still unknown. In Neuro-physiology each cell is a complex dynamical system controlled by electric fields and chemical neurotransmitters. (Mathematical) Model Representation of an existing system which presents (some) knowledge in usable form. Finite set of variables and interactions. (Eg. Scientific) Method A way how to solve a given problem. Eg. Bodies of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring, correcting and integrating knowledge. Collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.
6 Why Several Neural Network models? Models, Paradigms and Methods for ANN Paradigms Model or case example of a general theory Paradigms for some biological neuronal behaviour. Available models are incorrect or incomplete regarding the biological neuron. What is the goal? Understand the biological brain? Get better machine learning methods? Solve specific problems? Question for each new model: what is its added value? (Can we solve it with a previous model?) Eg. Self Organizing Models (SOM): Unsupervised model that can be used for clustering and visualizing data.
7 Additional Models ANN models JASTAP Recurrent SOM ART PNN RBF... Relevant problems for new models How to train/learn? How to understand and represent knowledge? What is this model contribution?
8 Additional Models Spiking models Implement more neuro-realistic models, taking time into account Input is a time series Some works use spike input trains.
9 Additional Models Issues on Any Neural Networks How can NN learn in more complex models? Genetic algorithms can learn weights and architecture. Generalised BP for spiking neurons but model harder to understand. What are the advantages of more complex models? Even in simple MLPs: only sub-optimal learning (e.g. Vapnik). Simulate or understand biology? Berger: Bio-realistic differential population models. Spiking models are good models of biological neurons? In SOM: hundreds of simple units similar to biological neural maps. Hans Moravec: why use silicon to duplicate biology. Hölldobler: MLP implement any logical function kernel.
10 Backpropagation Basic Algorithm Backpropagation learning in networks of perceptrons. BP (and variants) are the best way to train MLPs. Generalized Delta Rule: w = η (E[ w])
11 Gradient Descent: concepts (from [TM97]) I Consider simpler linear unit, where: o = w 0 + w 1 x w n x n Let s learn w i s that minimize the squared error of simpler linear unit E[ w] 1 (t d o d ) 2 2 d D Where D is set of training examples.
12 Gradient Descent: concepts (from [TM97]) II Gradient: Training rule: i.e., E[ w] [ E, E, E ] w 0 w 1 w n w = η E[ w] w i = η E w i
13 Gradient Descent: concepts (from [TM97]) III E = 1 w i w i 2 = 1 2 d = 1 2 d (t d o d ) 2 d w i (t d o d ) 2 2(t d o d ) w i (t d o d ) = (t d o d ) (t d w x d ) w i d E w i = (t d o d )( x i,d ) d
14 Gradient Descent Algorithm for Perceptron (from [TM97]) I Gradient-Descent(training examples, η) Each training example is a pair of the form x, t, where x is the vector of input values, and t is the target output value. η is the learning rate (e.g.,.05). Note: [TM97] is assuming the linear unit Initialize each w i to some small random value Until the termination condition is met, Do Initialize each w i to zero. For each x, t in training examples, Do Input the instance x to the unit and compute the output o
15 Gradient Descent Algorithm for Perceptron (from [TM97]) II For each linear unit weight w i, Do w i w i + η(t o)x i For each linear unit weight w i, Do w i w i + w i
16 Sigmoid versus step function Step function x > 0 is non differentiable. Sigmoid functions are similar but differentiable. Function: σ(x) = e x has the nice property: = σ(x)(1 σ(x)) σ(x) x
17 Error Gradient for a Sigmoid Unit (from [TM97]) I E = 1 w i w i 2 (t d o d ) 2 d D = 1 2 d = 1 2(t d o d ) 2 = d d w i (t d o d ) 2 (t d o d ) (t d o d ) w i ) ( o d w i = d (t d o d ) o d net d net d w i
18 Error Gradient for a Sigmoid Unit (from [TM97]) II But we know: o d = σ(net d) = o d (1 o d ) net d net d So: net d = ( w x d) = x i,d w i w i E = (t d o d )o d (1 o d )x i,d w i d D
19 MLP Backpropagation Algorithm (from [TM97]) I Initialize all weights to small random numbers. Until satisfied, Do For each training example, Do 1 Input the training example to the network and compute the network outputs 2 For each output unit k 3 For each hidden unit h δ k o k (1 o k )(t k o k ) δ h o h (1 o h ) k outputs w h,k δ k
20 MLP Backpropagation Algorithm (from [TM97]) II 4 Update each network weight w i,j where w i,j w i,j + w i,j w i,j = ηδ j x i,j
21 Backpropagation properties More on Backpropagation (from [TM97]) Gradient descent over entire network weight vector Easily generalized to directed graphs (Elman) Will find a local, not necessarily global error minimum In practice, often works well (can run multiple times) Often include weight momentum α w i,j (n) = ηδ j x i,j + α w i,j (n 1) Minimizes error over training examples Will it generalize well to subsequent examples? Training can take thousands of iterations slow! Using network after training is very fast
22 Backpropagation properties MLP-Decision Regions Single Perceptron: linear discriminator unit One hidden layer: any logic function
23 Backpropagation properties Overfitting in Neural Networks Too much units on hidden layers can prevent good generalization. Blackbox: Non-localized knowledge representation
24 Backpropagation properties Local Minima with Backpropagation Algorithm Local minima: usual problem with greedy methods. Wrong starting point can be problematic. Usual near zero random initialization can have problems. We should have a good starting point (based on our knowledge). We should avoid traps in learning space (based on our
25 Visualization of the Neural Network Using Visualization for Learning Analysis Discovering what the neural Network learned Sensitivity Analysis Rule Generation Standard Graphics Neural Network Graphic Hinton Diagram for weights Clustering and Segmentation Visualization Using Domain knowledge to view the output
26 Visualization of the Neural Network Tom Mitchell s Binary Encoding (in Mitchell, 1997)
27 Visualization of the Neural Network Tom Mitchell s Iterations for Binary Encoding (in Mitchell, 1997)
28 Visualization of the Neural Network POS Tagger Network Graphic PCT DET N ADJ V PREP CONJ WH ADV HAVE Vt BE PRONt DO AUX PRON PN INT Input Hidden Output
29 Visualization of the Neural Network POS Tagger weights Hidden Input Units Output Units Hidden Units
30 NN as a Logic Function Including Knowledge in Neural Networks Both logic and neural networks are two founding areas in AI. Logic is applied to Computational Logic or Logic Programming We can reason over structured objects. Neural Networks are particularly good for modeling sub-symbolic information Can learn, adapt to new environments, graceful degradation. Used in Industrial processes or controllers Namely after training, specialized hardware and very fast response time. Core method intends to integrate both approaches.
31 NN as a Logic Function Issues on Neuro-Symbolic Integration I BP doesn t work so well with strict logic rules ([BHM08]). In machine learning we need ways to guide learning. Propositional Fixation (only atomic propositions). Care should be taken while encoding symbols. FOL and logical arguments can be taken into account. Neural Networks can implement an Universal Turing machine. We need recursion (difficult to understand). In general, no clear semantics in integrated information. Only by understanding the starting model and the learning that is taking place we can advance beyond black-box approaches to machine learning.
32 NN as a Logic Function Issues on Neuro-Symbolic Integration II Neural network usage in data mining requires good knowledge and explanation of data. Can the basic ideas be extended to other models and knowledge representations?
33 Symbolic or Subsimbolic How can neural networks take advantage of express knowledge? Knowledge extraction achieved by machine learning in neural networks (backpropagation) After proper training, networks extract meaningful knowledge from data Implicitly: classification and clustering models Explicitly: Neuro-symbolic approach New relevant connections in learned model (i.e. we can understand the neural network) Domain knowledge (rules) used to guide learning Feed-Forward neural networks have many parameters Rules Bias learning to a nearby local-minima Recursion (and neuro-computation) can be inserted with Elman Neural Networks.
34 Neuro-Symbolic Networks: the Core Method Core method basic algorithm [HK,94] Implements the T p operator (next logical step) If appropriate, recursion will lead to stable models. m nb. of propositions in P Input and output layer have size m, each unit has threshold 0.5 and represents one proposition. For each clause A L 1 L 2... L k with l 0 in P: 1 Add a binary unit c to hidden layer. 2 For each literal L j Lj, 1 j k, connect input unit for L j to c with weight ω if L j is an positive literal, or ω if L j is a negative literal. 3 Set threshold T c of unit c as l ω 0.5, where l is the number of positive literals.
35 Neuro-Symbolic Networks: the Core Method Discussion of ω while encoding rules For ω = 0 network stops to improve at some point. For ω > 0 network outperforms network ω = 0. For ω = 5 network did not learn very well. Avoiding Local Minima With errors on only a few samples, back-propagation can get into a local minima.
36 Neuro-Symbolic Networks: the Core Method The MLP s Sigmoid Function [M09] Understanding Backpropagation Learning in the Core Method Networks
37 Neuro-Symbolic Networks: the Core Method Backpropagation and NeSy encoding I Parameter ω gives stability to rules while training. Recall gradient trains sigmoid units with: E w i = d (t d o d ) o d net d x i,d. (1) bigger values of ω make the sigmoid approximate a stepwise function and make go near zero. o d net d good if certain on the rules. Not advisable for rules needing revision. There is a learning zone that depends on ω and net. Free units (with near zero weights) are the first to learn.
38 Probabilistic/Numeric Encodings Basic Core Method for Probabilistic/Numeric Encodings How to handle other inputs (e.g. a probability of some observation). Problem with direct use of probabilities, in core method: , but = We need additional constraints, e.g.: X > T X. But can the network learn the best value of T X? Use a sigmoid neuron having as input X and bias ω T X : 1 alpha < will be true iff X > T X e ω (X T X ) < alpha.
39 Probabilistic/Numeric Encodings Illustrative Example: Learning AND 1HL Original Core Method 2HL Extended Core Method Figure: Initial core methods neural networks, before training and initial weight disturbance.
40 Probabilistic/Numeric Encodings Differences in Backprop for Learning AND Figure: Train error for learning an AND with four distinct encodings.
41 Elman Neural Network [E1990] Core Method can not encode variable length patterns Novel methods for encoding temporal rules to extend the power of neuro-symbolic integration. Elman neural networks allow rules with preconditions at non-deterministic time (e.g. important in NLP [FP01] (Analogical) Recursive connections allow a super-turing power (e.g. Siegelmann, 1994/1999). Learning space: bias learning to a nearby local-minima and allow complex (but controled) feedback loops.
42 The Classic Elman Neural Network Elman Neural Networks Neuronal Unit Elman Neural Network
43 The Classic Elman Neural Network Learning in Elman Neural Networks Non-parametric statistical models learning from examples. Error Backpropagation algorithm iteratively adjusts weights. Semi-recursive neural network using Backpropagation-Through Time. Find patterns in a sequences of values.
44 Main References Main References Mitchell, T.M.: Machine Learning. McGraw-Hill (March 1997) Steffen Hölldobler and Yvonne Kalinke, Towards a massively parallel computational model for logic programming, in Proceedings ECAI94 Workshop on Combining Symbolic and Connectionist Processing, pp ECAI, (1994). Jeffrey L. Elman Finding Structure in Time In Cognitive Science vol. 14, 1990.
45 Other References Other References I David E. Rumelhart and Geoffrey E. Hinton and Ronald Williams, Learning representations by back-propagating errors, in Nature (323), pp (October 1986). Sebastian Bader, Steffen Hölldobler and Nuno Marques. Guiding Backprop by Inserting Rules Proceedings ECAI94 Workshop on Neuro-Symbolic Integration., ECCAI, (2008). Nuno Marques. An Extension of the Core Method for Continuous Values New Trends in Artificial Intelligence. APPIA, (2009).
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