# Data Mining Lab 5: Introduction to Neural Networks

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1 Data Mining Lab 5: Introduction to Neural Networks 1 Introduction In this lab we are going to have a look at some very basic neural networks on a new data set which relates various covariates about cheese samples to a taste response. If you need to refer to previous labs or to download the data set, they are in the folder ST same place as usual. 2 Cheese Data Set 2.1 Getting Setup Exercise: Download the cheese data from the course website. Exercise: Load the cheese data into a variable called cheese in your workspace. Exercise: Load the nnet package, which contains the functions to build neural networks in R. 2.2 Explore the Data Since we re looking at a new data set it s good practice to get a feel for what we re looking at. cheese names(cheese) summary(cheese) These two commands tell us respectively the names of the variables and some summary statistics about the data contained therein. Exercise: Do a box plot and a pairs plot of all the data. Exercise: To reinforce the new programming learned in the last lab and lecture, adapt the for-loop code from lab 4. par(mfrow=c(2, 2)) 1

2 2.3 Train, Validate and Test Subsets You might expect that we would next split the data into cross-validation sets. However, one of the first things that probably struck you about the data when looking at it is how few observations there are (only 30). Consequently, it is questionable whether it would be sensible to split the data three ways to get train, validate and test sets: we would end up with so little data in each set that our analysis would lack any power. In lectures you will see/have seen two possible options for assessing models without splitting the data: the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (SBIC). Under the assumption of normally distributed errors, these can be written: AIC = 2k + n log ( ) SSE n SBIC = k log n + n log ( ) SSE n where k is the number of parameters being estimated, n is the number of observations in the full data set and SSE = ε 2 i = (ŷ i y i ) 2. We will use these instead of train, test and validate splits for this small data set. 3 Neural Networks 3.1 Simple Neural Net, Linear Activation Fn, No Hidden Layer Fitting the Neural Net We are going to first fit the simplest possible neural network to the cheese data, to predict taste from acetic, H2S and lactic. This is the neural network with the input layer directly connected to the output. fitnn1 = nnet(taste ~ Acetic + H2S + Lactic, cheese, size=0, skip=true, linout=true) summary(fitnn1) The size argument specifies how many nodes to have in the hidden layer, skip indicates that the input layer has a direct connection to the output layer and linout specifies the simple identity activation function. The output from summary gives us the detail of the neural network. i1, i2 and i3 are the input nodes (so acetic, H2S and lactic respectively); o is the output node (so taste); and b is the bias. Exercise: Fill in the shaded boxes on the neural network diagram below with the values which R has fitted. 2

3 Acetic H2S Lactic x i1 x i2 x i3 w 1 = w 2 = w 3 = Bias β = Taste ŷ i = = ŷ i = β + w 1 x i1 + w 2 x i2 + w 3 x i3 ŷ i = We can compare this to the fit we get by doing standard least squares regression: lm(taste ~ Acetic + H2S + Lactic, cheese) Exercise: Upto a reasonable level of accuracy, do you see any difference between the linear model and neural network fit? Model Evaluation We can now compute the AIC for this fitted model quite simply: SSE1 = sum(fitnn1\$residuals^2) AIC1 = 2*5 + 30*log(SSE1/30) AIC1 Exercise: Using the SSE already calculated in SSE1, compute the SBIC and store it in a variable called SBIC1. A scientist working on the project may believe there is reason to query whether acetic is a good linear predictor for taste. To test this conjecture, we can refit a linear model without acetic in and compare the AIC and SBIC of the two models. fitnn2 = nnet(taste ~ H2S + Lactic, cheese, size=0, skip=true, linout=true) summary(fitnn2) SSE2 = sum(fitnn2\$residuals^2) AIC2 = 2*4 + 30*log(SSE2/30) AIC2 AIC2 < AIC1 Exercise: On the basis of the above analysis, what is your advice to the scientist? Should the model with or without acetic be preferred? 3

4 3.2 Adding a Hidden Layer With a Single Node We now add a hidden layer in between the input and output neurons, with a single node. fitnn3 = nnet(taste ~ Acetic + H2S + Lactic, cheese, size=1, linout=true) You may (or may not) see output with numbers of similar magnitude to the following: # weights: 6 initial value final value converged The numbers being printed here are the SSE = ε 2 i = (ŷ i y i ) 2 for the fit on the current iteration of the neural network fitting algorithm. If you look back to the previous nnet() calls, you should see that the final SSE It seems very strange that the SSE has increased so dramatically when we are increasing the model complexity! If you keep rerunning the last command, you should find that sometimes you get SSE < 2700 and other times not (try this until you see it change). This is because the algorithm chooses random starting weights for the neural net and for some choices is getting stuck in a local minima. The writers of nnet() have designed the algorithm to be more robust to this kind of issue when scaled data is used ( x i = 0, s 2 x i = 1). So, we ll scale the data and refit: cheese2 = scale(cheese) fitnn3 = nnet(taste ~ Acetic + H2S + Lactic, cheese2, size=1, linout=true) summary(fitnn3) Aside: Note that we could not now compare an AIC/SBIC from this model to the earlier ones because the data were on different scales which affects the SSE. We would have to refit the earlier model on the scaled data to do a comparison. Exercise: Use the space below to draw the full neural network we have fitted. Make sure you show all appropriate connections; all the weights for every connection; and write the full model equation after the diagram. 4 Neural Networks for Classification 4.1 Getting Setup Exercise: Download the Titanic data from the course website if you don t already have a local copy saved. Exercise: Load the titanic data into a variable called data in your workspace. Exercise: Load the nnet package, which contains the functions to build neural networks in R. 4

5 4.2 Train and Test Subsets We are back in the nice situation of having plenty of data, so we can do the usual train and test splits in the data for model checking. Exercise: Split the data in data into two variables, one called train and another called test. The split should be 1 for the testing data and 2 for the training data. 3 3 Exercise: Confirm that we did not get a freakish random split of the Survived variable. In other words, check that there are a decent number of survivors and non-survivors in both train and test. (Hint: see lab 4, 2.3 if you ve forgotten) 4.3 Fitting the Neural Network The nnet package has a slightly strange requirement that the target variable of the classification (ie Survived) be in a particular format. At the moment, if you look at data\$survived you will see it is a vector of No/Yes values, but when using nnet() for classification we must instead provide a two-column matrix one column for No and the other for Yes with a 1/0 as appropriate. In other words, we need to convert: Yes 0 1 Yes 0 1 No 1 0 Yes 0 1 No 1 0 No Fortunately there is an easy to use utility function class.ind to do this for us built-in to the package: train\$surv = class.ind(train\$survived) test\$surv = class.ind(test\$survived) Now we are ready to fit a neural network for classification purposes: fitnn = nnet(surv~sex+age+class, train, size=1, softmax=true) fitnn summary(fitnn) Exercise: Draw the neural network below. Remember to label each node carefully (particularly pay attention to the fact we have categorical nodes here) and label every arc with the weights. 5

6 4.4 Calculating Probabilities Calculating the probabilities from the neural network can seem a bit difficult, so we recap how the nnet function is doing it (which might be subtly different from lectures, but you should see the high-level similarity). Consider the following example of a classification neural network: x 1 x 2 x 3 w 1 w 2 w3 h β 1 β 2 v 1 v 2 o 1 o 2 α Then, where and P(category 1) = e o 1 e o 1 + e o 2 and P(category 2) = o 1 = v 1 h + β 1, o 2 = v 2 h + β 2 eα+ wi x i e o 2 e o 1 + e o 2 h = 1 + e α+ w i x i Exercise: Using the neural network you drew above, manually calculate the probability that an adult female passenger in first class does not survive. 4.5 Neural Network Performance We can now look at the overall performance of the neural network by looking at a table of how predictions using the test set fare: table(data.frame(predicted=predict(fitnn, test)[,2] 0.5, actual=test\$surv[,2]0.5)) How do you think it is doing? In reality the answer to this question will have an element of randomness in it due to different people s train/test splits, because once again the algorithm is not entirely stable. 4.6 Adding Decay You have discussed in lectures how decay can help to improve the stability of neural networks. The first thing we can do is scale data. See above (Section 3.2) for how to do this. The nnet function accepts an argument called decay which implements this automatically for you (ie we can put, for example, decay=0.02 in the nnet() function call). We can look at how decay affects the sum of squared errors by calculating various decay values upto 1 in a for loop. Exercise: Fill in the missing parts of the following code and so compute the sum of squared error over a range of values between and 1 which is then plotted. 6

7 err = vector("numeric", 100) d = seq(0.0001, 1, length.out=100) for(i in???) { fit =??? err[i] = sum(???) } plot(d, err) NB: If you get obvious outliers in the y-axis direction, rerun your code until you get something resembling a curve. 4.7 The Hessian Remember at lectures we looked at the Hessian matrix as an indicator of the stability of the solution,. To obtain and print the Hessian matrix we can do the following: fitnn = nnet(surv~sex+age+class, train, size=1, softmax=true, Hess=TRUE) fitnn\$hess The function eigen() in R can be used to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a matrix. Remember that the Hessian matrix should be positive definite (all eigenvalues greater than 0). eigen(fitnn\$hess) 5 Comparing Neural Networks and Trees 5.1 A Disadvantage of Neural Networks Neural networks do not, by default, pick up any interactions between variables in the data. However, you can add variable interactions manually. So, say we imagine that there is interaction between Age and Class in the Titanic data, we simply modify our nnet() call to: fitnn = nnet(surv~sex+age+class+age*class, train, size=1, softmax=true) fitnn summary(fitnn) table(data.frame(predicted=predict(fitnn, test)[,2] 0.5, actual=test\$surv[,2]0.5)) 5.2 A Longer Exercise... Exercise: If you have time, go back to the previous labs and remember how to fit a tree to the train data. Do so and compare the confusion matrix to the one you obtained just now from the neural network. Which performed better without extensive tuning? 7

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