Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

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1 The World Bank Road Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Executive Summary November 2010

2 Document quality information Document Quality Information General information Author(s) Project name Document name Egis Date November 2010 Reference Road Construction and Rehabilitation Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation Addressees Sent to: Name Organization Sent on (date): Fei Deng The World Bank Peng Wang The World Bank Copy to: Name Organization Sent on (date): Project Team Egis Bceom International History of modifications Version Date Written by Approved & signed by: 0 November 2010 Egis Page 2 Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

3 Contents Chapter 1 - Introduction Context and Background Context Purpose of the Toolkit Approach followed to develop the toolkit Purpose of this Background report Structure of this Background report... 9 Chapter 2 - General analysis of road construction emissions GHG emissions in road construction Road transport GHG emissions globally and by region Rationale for focusing on road construction activities Main issues Global emissions Emissions per Item of work and per type of road Emissions per phase of work and per type of road Current road construction practices in East Asia Chapter 3 - Development of a calculation tool Need for tools Assessment of existing tools Main principles of existing tools Comparison of calculations of existing tools Characteristics and limitations of existing tools Functions of the proposed tool Assumptions, modeling and calibration Emissions factors Chapter 4 - Alternative practices to reduce GHG emissions Identification of alternative practices Transport Earthworks Rock excavation Soil treatment Pavement Pavement structure types Investment and maintenance strategies Overloading and impact of standards Roughness Structures Equipment / road furniture Integration into the toolkit Economic and financial analysis Page 3 Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

4 Chapter 5 - Conclusions Main outcomes Challenges ahead Page 4 Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

5 List of Figures Figure 1 Road transport emissions as part of global and transport GHG emissions Figure 2. Emission per item of work per type of road Figure 3. Emission per GHG generator per type of road Figure 4. Impact of technology on emissions: asphalt plant in poor condition compared to a new one Figure 5 Total CO 2 emissions over a 40 years period for a 1 km long and 13 m wide road during construction, maintenance and operation (lighting, traffic lights, winter treatment) Figure 6 Some of the tools reviewed Figure 7. Simplified calculation process for materials Figure 7. CHANGER data input screen Figure 8. Emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator Figure 9. Breakdown of emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator Figure 10. Proposed report format - ROADEO tool Figure 11. Sample best practice data sheet ROADEO tool Figure 12. Screenshot of the upstream data entry module of the ROADEO tool Figure 13. Screenshot of the materials emission factors Changer tool Figure 14 Cumulated GHG emissions for construction and maintenance activities depending on pavement construction / maintenance strategy Figure 15 Comparison of distributed costs between initial construction and maintenance activities depending on pavement construction / maintenance strategy Page 5 Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

6 List of Tables Table 1 Regional breakdown of road transport share in transport GHG emissions Table 2 Typical unit GHG emissions of various road categories (t CO2 eq. /km) Table 3 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by work items for various road categories (t CO2 eq. /km) Table 4 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by generator for various road categories (t CO2 eq. /km) Table 5 Orders of magnitude of GHG emissions related to the road construction programme in 3 East Asian countries over Table 6 List of parameters used for the summarized description of the road Table 7 List of case studies used to calibrate the model Table 8 Emission Intensities within VicRoads, CHANGER and EGIS calculators Table 9 Emission Intensities for steel according to various sources Table 10 List of alternative practices included in the ROADEO tool Table 11 Relative importance of explosives in GHG emissions from earthworks techniques Table 12 Comparison of GHG emissions from the construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels Page 6 Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

7 Glossary of Abbreviations AASHTO AAU ASTAE BAU CDM CER CRRAP DNA EASTE EIRR EPA ERU ESA ETS EU FIRR FUND GHG HMA HMAM IPCC IRR ITL JI NPV ODA ORN PDD PPD PPM RGGI SC TRL UNFCC SCC WMA : American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials : Assigned Amount Unit : Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program : Business As Usual : Clean Development Mechanism : Certified Emission Reduction : Cold Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement : Designated National Authority : East Asia and Pacific region : Economic Internal Rate of Return : Environmental Protection Agency : Emission Reduction Unit : Equivalent Standard Axles : Emission Trading Scheme : European Union : Financial Internal Rate of Return : Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution : Green House Gas : Hot Mix Asphalt : High Modulus Asphalt Material : International Panel on Climate Change : Internal Rate of Return : International Transaction Log : Joint Implementation : Net Present Value : Official Development Assistance : Oversea Road Notes : Project Design Document : Perpetual Pavement Design : Parts Per Million : Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative : Stage Construction : Transport Research Laboratory : United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : Social Cost of Carbon : Warm Mix Asphalt Page 7 Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and Rehabilitation

8 Chapter 1 - Introduction 1. Context and Background 1.1. Context The transport sector of the East Asia and Pacific region (EASTE) of the World Bank (the 'Bank') has the goal of identifying solutions to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to road construction and rehabilitation in the region. The transport team was awarded a grant from the Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) to finance creation of a toolkit addressing the GHG emissions resulting from transport development and restoration activities. It is anticipated that over the next several years, developing countries in East Asia will be substantially expanding and restoring their extensive road networks. One result of these activities is increased GHG emissions. Reducing these emissions would significantly decrease the negative impacts related to these infrastructure works. There are several steps involved in road construction, which contribute to the production and release of GHG emissions, beginning with site clearing, preparation of the sub-grade, production of construction materials (i.e. granular sub-base, base course, surfacing), site delivery, construction works, ongoing supervision, maintenance activities, etc. The aggregate GHG emissions for each project (phase, section, alignment) can be calculated depending on equipment, local condition, and standard construction and maintenance practice in a country. This document has been prepared as part of a study aimed at identifying and quantifying the GHG emissions from current practices, and at developing a strategy for the better planning, design and construction of roads in order to give planners a tool where then can explicitly compare emissions and costs and therefore make more informed decisions some of which will result in lower emission roads Purpose of the Toolkit The Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Toolkit for Highway (ROADEO), with the support of a user manual, will guide users through various stages and activities of road construction and rehabilitation, help them identify the sensitive areas to GHG emissions, and provide them with various mitigation options considering cost and benefit implications. With the Toolkit, decision makers, designers and technicians in the highway sector may easily compare various alternatives in construction, and optimize their practices to minimize GHG emissions and maximize energy efficiency. It is envisioned that this Toolkit could be used on both new and existing projects Approach followed to develop the toolkit The preparation of the Toolkit involved the following nine activities: Task 1: Undertake a broad assessment of GHG emission related to the transport sector Task 2: Complete a detailed literature review on GHG emissions from road construction and rehabilitation activities Page 8

9 Task 3: Review of current road construction and rehabilitation practices in three East Asian developing countries Task 4: Select recent case studies in each country with detailed analysis of GHG emissions Task 5: Perform GHG emission calculations Task 6: Identify gaps between best practices from developed countries and practices in pilot developing countries and proposals for improving the situation Task 7: Assess costs and benefits of each alternative practice proposed in Task 6 Task 8: Develop the Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Toolkit for Road Construction and Rehabilitation Task 9: Complete the User Manual to accompany the Toolkit 2. Purpose of this Background report The purpose of this background report is to present the findings of the study that led to the development of the toolkit. It is intended to provide non-specialists with an introduction to main issues related to GHG emissions due to road construction in East Asia. While it was not possible to investigate all details, and to cover the very wide range of situations met on all road projects, efforts were made to identify orders of magnitude, extents, impacts, converging and diverging appreciations from the road community on some topics. Thus, this report will hopefully provide detailed information gathered during the preparation of the toolkit, and make it available to users for their studies. This document does not describe the functions of the ROADEO tool, which is the topic of the User Manual. Reference can be made to this document. 3. Structure of this Background report To make the document user friendly, it has been structured in several volumes. Each of these volumes covers an aspect of the GHG emissions. Volume 0 Main body (this document): provides general information, and an executive summary of the document s content. Volume 1 Introduction to GHG emissions from road construction Volume 2 Review of current road construction practices in East Asia Volume 3 Lower GHG emissions alternative practices for road construction Volume 4 Economic and financial analysis of road construction GHG emissions Page 9

10 Chapter 2 - General analysis of road construction emissions 1. GHG emissions in road construction 1.1. Road transport GHG emissions globally and by region In 2005, transportation was the second largest source of energy related emissions or about 13.9% of total emissions. Road transportation accounts for about 90 to 95% of the transport sector s contribution to GHG emissions. Figure 1. Road transport emissions as part of global and transport GHG emissions The information in the table below shows that road transport in Asia is a major contributor to transport GHG emissions. Asia is the region constructing the largest amount of new roads at the moment, and represented in % of manmade GHG emissions. Table 1 Regional breakdown of road transport share in transport GHG emissions Region Road transport contribution to transport sector World 72% Asia 95 to 100% Europe 93% North America 85% Page 10

11 Region Road transport contribution to transport sector Central America and Caribbean n.a. Middle East and N. Africa n.a. South Africa more than 50% Sub-saharan Africa n.a. Oceania 84% 1.2. Rationale for focusing on road construction activities While road construction GHG emissions only represent 5-10% of total GHG emissions in the sector, they are growing rapidly, especially in Asia due to major ongoing road programs to support economic development. The mitigation efforts are relatively easy to manage, and can have noticeable impacts (which is of interest to IFIs like the Bank) compared to actions on road traffic. Moreover, most road agencies in Asia are not yet aware of the impact of their activities on GHG emissions, even though Asia is at the center of road construction actions. It is therefore important to raise the awareness of the stakeholders to improve current practices and to facilitate more informed decision making. 2. Main issues An assessment of GHG emissions of road construction was performed on typical road sections of various types or categories. In the absence of the order of magnitude of various issues, this was expected to provide an indication of: The respective importance of various parts of the road network on GHG emissions, through a comparison of construction emissions of various categories of roads having different characteristics (geometry, pavement, structures) and ranging from expressways to unpaved rural roads. The contributions of various components of the project, from pavement to structures, earthworks, road furniture, drainage The calculations were made on simplified assumptions, and were performed with the Changer tool developed by the International Road Federation (IRF) Global emissions The global GHG emissions for the construction of 1km section of each type of road are as follows: Table 2 Typical unit GHG emissions of various road categories (t CO 2 eq. /km) Expressway National Road Provincial Road Rural Road - Gravel Rural Road - DBST Emission (t CO2 eq. /km) Factor equivalent to Expressway Page 11

12 We can thus see that the construction of 1 km of expressway emits as many tons of CO 2 as 4km of national roads, 15km of provincial roads, and about 33km of rural roads Emissions per Item of work and per type of road In the following table, the emissions produced by (i) the extraction/production of construction materials, (ii) their transport and (iii) the consumption of engines used for their laying have been gathered by items of works: Table 3 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by work items for various road categories (t CO 2 eq. /km) Emissions (t C0 2 eq./km) Expressway National Road Provincial Road Rural Road - Gravel Rural Road - DBST Earthworks Pavement Culverts Structures Road Furniture Total Figure 2. Emission per item of work per type of road Page 12

13 Structures and road furniture represent almost 50% (46,4%) of the emissions for the construction of an expressway. Choices regarding these items are thus of paramount importance to limit the GHG emissions of the project. For national roads, the safety barriers represent alone one quarter of the global emissions during the construction. Changes in practices regarding these items (for instance wooden barriers would then have a very significant impact on the final footprint of the project. For all the other roads, pavement is the major GHG producer, and the main parameters to be looked at are, as developed below, regards transportation emissions (distance to the concrete factory, distance to the quarry/borrow pit, etc.) 2.3. Emissions per phase of work and per type of road Table 4 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by generator for various road categories (t CO 2 eq. /km) Emissions (t C0 2 eq.) Transport emissions Material emissions Machines emissions Total Expressway National Road Provincial Road Rural Road - Gravel Rural Road - DBST Figure 3. Emission per GHG generator per type of road For expressway and national roads, GHG emissions from the fabrication/extraction of construction materials represent the main GHG contributor, about 90% of the global emissions; it is less important for provincial and rural roads, about 80%. Page 13

14 Material transport is also a significant GHG producer, with around 25% for expressway and national roads and up to 20% for provincial and rural roads. These two elements are hence the ones to be considered to improve significantly the GHG impact of a construction project. 3. Current road construction practices in East Asia Current design practices in the three case study countries have largely been influenced by western standards, mainly American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The inadequacy of these standards with regard to local conditions, construction methods, equipment, maintenance strategies and overloading enforcement currently implemented in these countries often leads to premature fatigue and deterioration of road networks. Project implementation practices are mainly characterized by the following aspects: Road projects are mainly funded from domestic sources in China, whereas ODA accounts for about 25% in Indonesia and 40% in Vietnam. Private investment has been increasing in all three selected countries over the past years, enabling a change in packaging and contracting practices. Construction markets are generally dominated by local contractors, with a significant share of state-owned companies, using substandard equipment and lacking capabilities in implementing the latest construction methods, except for China where major construction companies are using advanced practices. The involvement of foreign contractors, which could help promote technology transfer, has so far been limited to large projects where their contribution among consortiums has often not been significant. The use of Design and Build or EPC contractors is slowly developing, resulting in more efficient project implementation and management. Quality assurance approaches are, however, not yet widespread and need to be encouraged. Procurement practices do not consider GHG emissions as a criterion for evaluation of bids. Similarly, environmental management policies, either governed by local regulations or by IFA guidelines, do not require GHG monitoring during construction. Modern and old technologies coexist depending on the size and type of project. Page 14

15 Figure 4. Impact of technology on emissions: asphalt plant in poor condition compared to a new one Key issues in construction practices for specific work components include the following: Earthworks are usually not optimized except for major projects (excessive height of embankments to avoid grade separation and/or flooding, inappropriate definition of earth moving programs, use of small-sized equipment, limited use of soil stabilization) Drainage systems are frequently under-designed or missing on minor roads, and deficiencies in the implementation and maintenance of structures often result in flooding and high maintenance requirements Pavement: even on major projects, the life duration of flexible pavement happens to be shortened because of under-design (e.g. not taking into account overloading), inappropriate equipment (e.g. old mixing plants), deficiency of suitable materials ( hard bitumen and aggregates) and lack of maintenance. Cement-concrete pavement has not been extensively used, and aggregate recycling is usually not implemented. Structures: design and implementation practices for structures generally meet international standards. Improvements in the quality of locally manufactured cement-concrete is required to lengthen the duration life and more modern cement plants often translates into lower emissions per ton of cement produced. Road furniture: metallic and concrete guiderails are commonly implemented on expressways and national highways, thus generating significant GHG emissions. The analysis carried out on GHG emissions for typical road sections shows that the construction of expressways would generate far more GHG per kilometer than for other road categories. Pavement (only flexible pavement was considered in this analysis) would generally be the major GHG emissions source, but the share of GHG emissions from structures is quite significant for expressways, as is the share of metallic guiderails for national roads. Applying this analysis to selected countries shows that possibilities for reducing GHG emissions may significantly vary depending on the current length, distribution of road networks by type and their assumed extension in the coming years. Page 15

16 Table 5 Orders of magnitude of GHG emissions related to the road construction program in three East Asian countries over CO 2 emissions (t Indonesia Vietnam China eq CO2) Expressway 6,054,048 20% 13,696,941 54% 79,873,000 25% National Road 11,706,139 39% 5,848,337 23% 115,683,000 37% Provincial Road 4,992,098 17% 2,208,218 9% 54,169,000 17% Rural Road paved 7,189,451 24% 3,708,669 15% 63,983,000 20% Total 29,941,737 25,462, ,708,000 Page 16

17 Chapter 3 - Development of a calculation tool 1. Need for tools Concern about climate change and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted action in most sectors and spurred the development of decision tools to help make choices transparent and illuminate their contribution to GHGs; transportation is no exception. Early development of tools focused on the transportation activities themselves and sprung from much earlier studies and tools for energy efficiency and consumption. Given the smaller contribution to GHG emission from road construction and maintenance, it is only recently that studies have looked at these activities contribution and tools have just started to be developed. The choice of materials and techniques for road construction and maintenance has a wide variety of impacts ranging from local pollution and environmental degradation to the contribution to greenhouse gases and climate change; Manufacturers and engineering companies have conducted studies on the GHG contribution of their material and alternate construction techniques. For example some studies have shown that concrete and cement are responsible for 50% to 160% times more emissions than asphalt. Recycling at the end of the life cycle may also provide substantial gains. Figure 5. Total CO 2 emissions over a 40 years period for a 1 km long and 13 m wide road during construction, maintenance and operation (lighting, traffic lights, winter treatment) Page 17

18 2. Assessment of existing tools To assess the existing situation, several emissions calculation tools have been assessed. Figure 6. Some of the tools reviewed Based on their suitability, the areas covered and their ease of use, the review focused on three tools in more detail: Changer calculator, from IRF Vicroads calculator Egis calculator, based on Bilan Carbone from Ademe The assessment was done on three case studies selected in three pilot countries (China, Indonesia and Vietnam) Main principles of existing tools All existing tools share the same principle; they combine: Materials, which are elaborated from basic materials having emissions factors through a process which adds emissions. This includes by extension the clearing activities Transport (mostly of materials) at various stages of the construction process (supply of plants, supply of site, on site) having emission factors Construction process having emission factors through the emissions of construction equipment Others, to a lesser extent, such as personnel transport, management expenses, etc Therefore, all tools are simple calculation tools combining these generators, and adding up emissions from the various stages of the construction process and from various components of the works. Page 18

19 Figure 7. Simplified calculation process for materials 2.2. Comparison of calculations of existing tools The results of the comparisons made between various existing tools underline the following points: Total GHG emissions from one kilometer road construction project (China and Indonesia case studies) range from 700 to 1,700 t-eq CO 2. Total GHG emissions from one kilometer road maintenance / rehabilitation project (Vietnam case study) comprise between 300 to 500 t-eq CO 2. This is consistent with the simplified calculation made on typical roads. Depending on the calculator (and therefore data sources for emissions factors), total GHG emissions for a same case study can vary from a large range of value; the relative difference is consistent (around 15%) for Indonesia case study, it is more mixed for Vietnam (from 15% to 30%) and China case studies (from 0% to 30%). This is rather limited, especially when one considers that emission factors vary. Materials embodied energy and transport activities represent the most important part of total GHG emissions, more than 80%; On-site impact represent less than 5%; Regarding the calculators, GHG emissions evaluation performed with EGIS calculator appears in between the two others and GHG emissions evaluation performed with VicRoads (respectively CHANGER) appears as the greater (smaller) evaluation, except for the Vietnam case study evaluation Characteristics and limitations of existing tools The following has been observed: Although interfaces vary from summary (excel based) to more sophisticated, the architectures of the assessed calculation tools are the same: emissions related to on site activities (construction equipment mostly), transport of materials and production of materials are assessed through the multiplication of quantities by unit emission factors. The quantities used require detailed information on the project construction, such as the number of equipment of each type present on site, their production time. Detailed information is also required regarding the type of transport, and sometimes material composition (e.g., the quantities of aggregates and binder in concrete, so that transport Page 19

20 emissions can be calculated for aggregates from quarry to batching plant, and cement from cement plant to batching plant). This is very heavy and often not available at upstream stages, restricting the usage of the tool to informed specialists and to downstream stages. Sometimes, the levels of details vary (diameter of trees cut, age of trees cut are requested while major approximations are made on other topics (overall fuel consumption) Figure 8. CHANGER data input screen The quality of reports provided by tools varies. However, and in general: the breakdowns of emissions are not given according to types of works, which makes the use of results difficult: one cannot know, on which aspects of construction to focus to reduce emissions. The use of results is not easy in the absence of exporting of results in practical editable soft format. The emissions factors vary from one tool to the other. This does not create major problems; as long as the user can modify these factors to suit the specific conditions of the project. In some cases though (Changer) this is not possible. It is even difficult to extract the emissions factors used for a calculation (going through screen captures). The ease with which new materials, transport modes or vehicles, or construction equipment can be added is generally easy. This operation is sometimes impossible. This may prevent users from comparing alternative construction methods as would be presented by contractors during implementation (materials alternatives for example). The coverage of construction activities is not always very clear and complete. Earthworks, road furniture, structures or others are difficult to take into account. Transport is simplified, and sometimes limited to road transport while water and rail may play a significant role. The figures below show sample graphic outputs from Vicroads and Egis (Changer does not provide such outputs). The information provided cannot be directly used for example: Page 20

21 In the Vicroads tool, if there are concrete barriers, their contribution cannot be identified). In the Egis tool, the contributions of various concrete components are not identified, and there might be pavement and structural concrete. Figure 9. Emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator Figure 10. Breakdown of emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator 3. Functions of the proposed tool The above reasons led to the proposal to develop a tool, with the following principles: The tool should be open and transparent, allowing: Page 21

22 a. Addition of new equipment, new materials, and new transport modes b. Easy access to and modification of GHG generator characteristics, including emission factors. Thus, the addition of an expandable emission factors database was considered to be crucial The tool should be easy to use even at upstream stage, assisting users (including nonengineers) to assess the quantities of GHG generators from project macro-quantities. This involved the development of a model The tool should be useful to planners and designers. It might be used at downstream stage for assessing / comparing bids or construction method statements. The reporting should be useful to the decision making (engineering, planning) process to optimize the project; therefore, the tool should identify impacts of decisions Figure 11. Proposed report format - ROADEO tool The tool should be used to identify, propose, and assess the impact of alternative construction or management practices Page 22

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