1 Our Europe. Ethnography Ethnology Anthropology of Culture Vol. 1/2012 p Institute of History, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland The image of the West in the films of socialist Poland (PRL) The area of Central Europe was traditionally delimited by the borders of Austria- Hungary. However, after the Second World War the Central European region was re-defined by the appearance of countries of the socialist block, commonly called people s democracies. East Germany became one of the socialist block countries, while West Germany was joined to the West. Situated in Central Europe, Austria was nevertheless associated with the West on account of her political system and economics. The peculiarities of the after-war period in the history of Central Europe certainly merit a separate discussion, which, however, falls beyond the scope of the present article. The political divisions in Europe after WWII were profound and dismal. Poland, though situated in Central Europe and culturally connected with the Western civilization, was incorporated into the Eastern Block for forty five years. The same misfortune befell Chechoslovakia and Hungary. Interestingly, although Poland was also subjected to the USSR, the Polish nation did not, except during the Stalinist period, suffer the same hardships as those that afflicted other nations. After 1956, Polish citizens boasted relatively more freedom compared to the other socialist neighbours, often arousing envy among their citizens. This extended freedom also concerned the sphere of culture: Polish writers could write more, Polish filmmakers could produce more daring movies, etc. Still, criticism of the party and of the USSR was forbidden, of course; what was required was criticism of the Western world. In effect, while on the one hand the Poles were determined to protect their independence as a Central European nation bearing a western cultural heritage, they were, on the other hand, very much forced to act on the contrary. This contradiction is reflected in the country s culture, particularly in the movies of the socialist period. The cinema of the PRL (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, Polish People s Republic) is a branch of mass culture which cannot be fully understood without a thorough awareness of the political context in which it evolved. Like other arts (Głowiński 1992: 11-13), film was obliged to portray reality in accordance with the line dictated by the sole political party. Sometimes this bore tremendous consequences for the order of the world depicted in films. Ethically, the world portrayed was deeply polarized. To use an obvious example, what was good was inevitably connected with the Soviet Union and communism, whereas anything related with the USA or capitalism represented the bad. Further, the world was a scene of a perennial fight between two political systems: on one side, the USSR and the Eastern Block s democracies, including Poland, fighting for peace, and, on the other side, the USA and its allies, i.e countries of Western Europe, notoriously inciting war. Naturally, dif-
2 34 ferent periods in PRL s history exhibited this tendency less or more visibly; however, this view would be present in Poland s history until Consequently, films produced during the PRL period would emphasise our eastern connections with the Soviet Union, or even with former Russia, and deprecate any affiliation with the West. In this way, the authorities of the PRL were trying to use film as a tool for forging a new identity for the Polish nation: one based on the common origins with all the other Eastern Block countries and, also, on the denial of any connections with the West. Similar processes took place in other Central European countries dependent on the USSR. Filmmakers themselves were not particularly interested in raising such issues, however. One could even risk a statement that the topic was almost avoided. The USSR theme does appear in films, but relatively infrequently. In the 1960s, numerous titles came out that praised the heroism of Armia Ludowa (USSR-backed partisan troops) and Ludowe Wojsko Polskie (Polish People s Military Forces), which, by the side of the Red Army, had liberated the Polish homeland from the Germain occupation. The popularity of productions of this type was due to the influence of Mieczysław Moczar, a very prominent communist of the time and a rival of Władysław Gomułka (Eisler 1991: ; Siwiński 1994:131). Moczar s own memoir book Barwy Walki (Battle Colours, 1965, dir. J. Passendorfer) was also put on screen. However, more widely known, even todayf 1 F, were the comedy Gdzie jest generał? (Where is the General?, 1964, dir. T. Chmielewski) or the TV series Czterej pancerni i pies (Four tankmen and a dog, 1966, reż. K. Nałęcki). Apart from the war movies, titles depicting contemporary reality rarely spoke of Poland s relations with the USSR and other countries of the Eastern Block, the topic being perhaps too controversial or of too insignificant interest (Skotarczak: 2004). Apart from the rather unsuccessful attempts to project a positive image of the USSR, another function of the PRL film was to negatively portray the West and relations with it. Numerous films of the period leave the viewer with an impression that in spite of her onethousand-year history, Poland had almost nothing in common with the Western civilisation and was, infact, severely threteaned by it in a number of ways. Films that contributed to this theme appear particularly interesting to discuss. The first post-war comedy, Skarb (The Treasure, 1948), made by Leon Buczkowski even before the rules of socialist realism were declared, already suggests that everything connected with Europe should be hostile towards Poland. The bad characters were thus sly fellows driven by a desire of wealth and greed for foreign currency. In this relatively good comedy the subject was treated fairly lightly; however, in later titles, the mood became dead serious. In Czarci żleb (Devil s Ravine, dir. T. Kański and A. Vergano, 1950) and Uczta Baltazara (Balthazar s Feast, dir. J. Zarzycki, 1954) Europe was portrayed as a reactionary nest hosting members of the pre-war classes of means and adversaries of the new political system. Their aim was to recover the valuables and art pieces remaining in the home country, and to organize gangs of smugglers for the purpose. Obviously, those aims were disapproved of in the films, as personal property was not a respected form of ownership in the socialist system. In Niedaleko Warszawy (Not far from Warsaw, dir. M. Kaniewska, 1954), Pierwsze dni (The First Days, 1952), or Kariera (The Career, 1955) Europe was shown as the birthplace of spies and saboteurs heroically resisted by the Polish Secret Police (SB), workers and the youth. The year 1956 ushered in positive political changes. The thaw brought along greater freedom for artists, also those in the film business. Effects of these changes came soon after- 1 The Czocha Castle in Lower Silesia, the shooting site, holds a commemorative exhibition documenting the film.
3 The image of the West in the films of socialist Poland (PRL) 35 wards: the Polish film school quickly became recognized worldwide. Still, contrary to what one might expect, the image of Western Europe in the new Polish films did not change. Even though people had begun to travel to the West more often and were more open onto the western culture, in films the enemy remained the enemy. The only difference was that ordinary people were now portrayed more kindly, especially if coming from countries in which communist parties held a rather strong position. Thus, French people are depicted as friendly in such films as Kalosze szczęścia (1958, Lucky Boots, dir. A. Bohdziewicz), Marysia i Napoleon (Maria and Napoleon, 1966, dir. L. Buczkowski), or Paryż-Warszawa bez wizy (Paris-Warsaw without a Visa, 1967, dir. H. Przybył), as are Italians in Giuseppe w Warszawie (Giuseppe in Warsaw, 1964, dir. S. Lenartowicz), or Dwa żebra Adama (Adam s Two Ribs, 1964, dir. J. Morgenstern). The emigration circles were presented in a similarly dichotomous fashion. In Kalosze szczęścia, the representatives of the Polish authorities settled in London were shown as notoriously arguing and ridiculous. However, ordinary emigrants would usually deserve a more favourable light: they would be nice and likable, although incapable of understanding the current reality of the country they left after September The message of the PRL films was that maintaining connections with the West was a highly dangerous choice. Travels to capitalist countries wrongly influenced personality or even turned people into criminals. Especially in detective films, characters remaining in contact with western countries essentially turn out to be criminals. Their typical crime is the smuggling of Polish art pieces, presumably highly demanded by western art collectors. In Gdzie jest trzeci król (Where is the Third King?, 1967, dir. R. Ber) an art restorer connected with a western gang steals a valuable painting from a museum and commits murder. The role is played by Kalina Jędrusik, a Polish sex bomb of the time, whose provocative image, rather associated with a western lifestyle, often irritated the official morality guardians of the Polish culture (Kutz 1999: ). Another smuggling character is a professor of art history in Trzecia ręka (The Third Hand), an episode of a TV series Kapitan Sowa na tropie (Captain Sowa Hot on the Trail, 1965, dir. S. Bareja). Foreign smugglers duping careless Poles appeared even in the children s TV series Wakacje z duchami (Holidays with Ghosts, 1971, dir. S. Jędryka). Films about emigrants and would-be emigrant also reveal an interesting picture of Europe. The consequences of leaving are usually tragic. In Kalosze szczęścia, the main character, lost in a capitalist world, dies under the wheels of a car carrying a member of the Polish government-in-exile. In Gdzie jest trzeci król?, the intention to escape to the West breeds theft and fellony. Likewise, in Ostatni kurs (1963, The Last Ride, dir. J. Batory), directors of stateowned plants, led astray by a seductive night club singer (played by Barbara Rylska), embezzle money to escape with her to Sweden. They end up tragically as the singer turns out to be a boss of a gang of thieves and murderers. In Przygoda z piosenką (Adventure with a Song, 1969, dir. S. Bareja), the main characters are more lucky. A young singer (played by Pola Raksa) leaves for Paris, dreaming of world-wide fame. Unfortunately, she experiences numerous humiliations as she discovers that the capitalist show business is ruled by sex and money, and that Poles that succeed there are unwilling to help their compatriots. In the end, the girl is forced to perform a striptease, but is rescued by her ex-lover, who is successfully established in Paris owing to a state-awarded stipend. Several films from the 1960s and 1970s tell stories about spies sent from the West to Poland. In Spotkanie ze szpiegiem (Rendez-Vous with a Spy, 1964, dir. J. Batory), a morally disgusting western intelligence agent (Ignacy Machowski) attempts to steal maps of rocket missile bases. In Hasło Korn (Password: Korn, 1968, dir. W. Podgórski) spies penetrate a power plant with the help of greedy private business owners. In Brylanty pani Zuzy (Diamonds of Mrs. Zuza, 1972, dir. P. Komorowski) foreign spies make contact with a gang of local drug dealers.
4 36 Occasionally, Polish agents would be allowed to travel abroad, naturally only as a precaution against imperialist expansion, as in Na krawędzi (On the Edge, 1973, dir. W. Podgórski), where a Polish spy extracts information about riots being planned to disrupt order in the country. Our man in the West was also a journalist by the name of May, played by Leszek Teleszyński, the protagonist in the TV series Życie na gorąco (Hot Life, 1978, dir. A. Konic), who travelled successfully across Western Europe frought with dangers entrapping honest citizens. The films of that period, as well as other mass media, generally present Western Europe as a horrifying place ruled only by money and showing no concern for an ordinary man. A newcomer from Eastern or Central Europe, accustomed to the comfort of protection from the state, is doomed to failure in such hostile conditions unless the state is able to support him there. The puzzling fact, however, remains that so many people from the Soviet-controlled part of Europe, were nevertheless determined to flee to that threatening world of the West. The 1980s did not bring any significant change to the prevalently negative view of Western Europe in Polish movies, but new themes, inspired by the current events, appeared. In the aftermath of the suppression of the social protests by martial law on December 13, 1981, hundreds of thousands of Poles, many young and educated, decided to emigrate. This was a huge problem for the country, and a source of personal tragedy for many emigrants. Although the authorities intended to table the issue, emigration became a topic for films. This brought titles recounting the sad fate of emigrants in Europe: in the mid-1980s it would not have been possible to present a Polish emigrant facing success in the West. The film Epizod Berlin-West (Episode in West Berlin, 1986, dir. M. Waśkowski) tells a story of a writer who wishes to make a career in the West without political support or control from eager patrons. His growing alienation gradually leads him to suicide. In Sezon na bażanty (The stalking season, 1986, dir. W. Saniawski), a well-known sportsman fights to regain his son, whom his disappointed wife had abducted to Austria. In Wakacje w Amsterdamie (Holidays in Amsterdam, 1986, dir. K. Sowiński), the main character s decision to settle in the West breaks up the family. As would appear from the titles discussed, during the forty five years of communist rule a hard-and-fast division of the continent into the Eastern and Western parts was observed, with Poland designated a place in the Eastern part. Central Europe, while culturally a separate region, was not recognized, and regarded as essentially non-existent and belonging to the past. This position is confirmed by two excellent movies of the day: Lekcja martwego języka (Lesson of a Dead Language, 1979) by Janusz Majewski, and Austeria (The Inn, 1983) by Jerzy Kawalerowicz. The films are based on the prose of Andrzej Kuśniewicz and Julian Stryjkowski, respectively, both writers fascinated with the phenomenon of Central Europe. It is difficult to disagree with them that the First World War put an end to a certain social and political order in the central part of the Continent. After the Second World War the multicultural nature of the region was suppressed and its area was reduced to the status of a mere part of a bigger, homogeneous whole. Bibliography Eisler J. (1991), Marzec 1968 [March 1968], Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Głowiński M. (1992), Trzynaście szkiców o sztuce zdegradowanej [Ritual and demagogy. Thirteen sketches on degraded art.], Warszawa : Open. Kutz K. (1999), Klapsy i ścinki. Mój alfabet filmowy i nie tylko [Claps and cuts. My filmmaking ABC], Kraków: Znak. Siwiński I. (1994), Barwy walki albo tęsknota za legendą [ Battle colours or yearning for a legend] in T. Miczka and A. Madej (ed) Syndrom konformizmu? Kino polskie lat
5 The image of the West in the films of socialist Poland (PRL) 37 sześćdziesiątych [The conformisme syndrome? The Polish Cinema of the 1960 s], Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego. Skotarczak D. (2004), Obraz społeczeństwa PRL w komedii filmowej [The image of communist Poland s sociaty in film comedy], Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
Post World War II Communism and the Cold War Post World War II What is the COLD WAR? Longest Era of American History: 1946-1990 Clash of ideology that never led to a direct war between the United States
IMMIGRATION TO AND EMIGRATION FROM GERMANY IN THE LAST FEW YEARS Bernd Geiss* Germany, Destination for Migrants Germany is in the middle of Europe and has common borders with nine countries. Therefore,
Adolf Hitler The man that did the unthinkable Hitler s Childhood Born on April 20 th 1889 His hometown is the Austrian town of Braunau His Mother was a housemaid while his father was an Austrian Custom
Internet Activities Vocabulary: These words will help you understand this lesson. Word/Term computer Internet chat room Definition Materials Needed: pen or pencil access to computer / Internet electronic
Rahaf Alwattar Daniela Morales Kiley Smith Madison So To What Extent is The Cold War a Result of Two Conflicting Ideologies? The Cold War was an unceasing state of political and military tensions between
RENE MAGRITTE Created by: Jasmine Vasquez RENE MAGRITTE Rene Magritte was one of the most well known and famous surrealist painters of all time, yet it was not until his 50s, when he was finally able to
Unit 6. The Cold War (1945-1991) Learning Target 23 Summarize how atomic weapons have changed the nature of war, altered the balance of power and started the nuclear age. Following World War II, the United
APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify
US History 2 Ch. 24: World War II 1941-1945 Review Sheet Mr. Mulry Axis Power Goals Country Leader Goals Germany Adolf Hitler Dominate Europe and eliminate inferior Jews Italy Benito Mussolini Dreams of
THE ROADBLOCK TO A SOVEREIGN BANKRUPTCY LAW Jeffrey D. Sachs Bankruptcy law is a necessary feature of a modern economy, and the principles for a bankruptcy apply whether the debtor happens to be a sovereign
To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century
THE NETHERLANDS DURING THE 1930s 1. The 1930s This first part of the exhibition shows the Netherlands before the Second World War. Look around and then match each letter with the right picture. A: Democracy
Opening statement by Frans Timmermans, First Vice-President designate, in charge of Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations, the Rule of Law and the Charter of Fundamental Rights 7 October 2014
MC.DOC/7/14/Corr.1 1 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Ministerial Council Basel 2014 Second day of the Twenty-First Meeting MC(21) Journal No. 2, Agenda item 7 MINISTERIAL COMMEMORATIVE
Honorary doctorate for Radoslaw Sikorsky Nova University of Lisbon 25th of March of 2015 Nuno Severiano Teixeira On the 25th of April of 1974, it began, in Lisbon, what years later Samuel Huntington would
Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. World History Turmoil between the World Wars Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 1. Referring to the maps above, which of the following statements best describes the result
THE WORLD AT WAR: CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I STANDARD SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term causes of World War I and its global impact. A. Identify the causes of the war; include
Origins of the Cold War Main Idea The detonation of the atomic bomb and the end of World War II led to disagreements among the Big Three wartime Allies and a shift in American attitudes toward the Soviet
Tate Britain, Millbank, London SW1P 4RG Display organized by Tate Britain in collaboration with the Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Warsaw as part of Curators Alison Smith, Tate Britain Andrzej Szczerski, Art
WORK ETHICS WORK ETHICS TAILORED FOR GOVERNMENT WORKERS IN KENYA NATIONAL & COUNTY LEVELS PART I NEW KENYA THE CONSTITUTION DEVOLVED GOVERNMENTS (47) NATIONAL GOVERNMENT SERVICE DELIVERY PUBLIC INTEREST
Evaluation Essay Movie Review Everybody goes to the movie, it seems, to be entertained, but how many go to study movies as works of art. That is what movie reviewing involves: seeing a film as more than
Stereotypes of Poland and Poles Stereotypes Every nation has got their own customs, habits and stereotypes. They are characteristic for each country. Stereotypes describe common models of behavior, habits,
Fahrenheit 451 A novel by Ray Bradbury Communication Skills Context Published in 1953 Post-World War II era Nazi book burnings of the 1930s were widely published after WWII became a major symbol of the
Theme Topics: Questioning society & forming opinions 1. Animal Farm by George Orwell 2. Choose one of the following: The Giver by Lois Lowry Unwind by Neil Shusterman The Only Thing to Fear by Caroline
1815 Napoleon is captured Unification of Italy Time to divide his empire and answer the following questions: How do you prevent the rise of another Napoleon? How do you establish a lasting peace & genuine
AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Analyze the long-term and short-term factors responsible for the disintegration of communist rule in TWO of the following states: Czechoslovakia East
Program Tables September 15, 2008 10.30-12.00 University of Wrocław, OPENING Main CEREMONY Hall Plac Uniwersytecki (Aula 1 Leopoldina) Chair: Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska 12.00-13.30 Lunch 13.30-15.00 PLENARY
German initiated battle in western europe that attempted to push back the allied advance that was un. Sample letter requesting financial assistance from employer. German initiated battle in western europe
Animal Farm: An Abridged Text 5256 Introduction to Animal Farm Animal Farm is a novel. It is a famous story. Animal Farm was written by George Orwell in 1945. Mr Orwell went to a farm. He saw a boy walking
Issue Video games 1. What s the issue? Video games are in the news Grand Theft Auto 5 is a game full of violence and mayhem. You can drive and run through a fictional city, shooting people, running them
1 PRE-TEST Directions: Read the following statements and circle whether they are True or False. 1. After World War One, many countries had difficulty dealing with war debts, hunger, and unemployment. 2.
PUBLIC OPINION ON THE MANDATORY DEATH PENALTY IN TRINIDAD A SUMMARY OF THE MAIN FINDINGS OF A SURVEY Roger Hood and Florence Seemungal A Report for the Death Penalty Project and the Rights Advocacy Project
Literature Novel Animal Farm English I Summer Reading Guide Instructions Although no written assignment is due on the first day of school, use this guide and the reading log to make sure you re prepared.
Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions 1. Korea Divided at 38th Parallel Hungarian Revolution Crushed Missile Sites Spotted in Cuba The events in these headlines contributed to the 1) development
Women in the Military Women have served in military conflicts since the American Revolution, but World War II was the first time that women served in the United States military in an official capacity.
Coraline Study Notes Directed by: Heny Selick Certificate: PG Running time: 100 mins Suitable for: KS2/3 English/Literacy This resource is designed to work across upper KS2 and lower KS3. It could form
Marx 1 Karl Marx (1818-1883) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 Estranged Labor Marx lays out here his theory on the alienation of labor Marx s thesis would advance the view put forth by Rousseau
The Penguins of Madagascar 2012 Viacom International Inc. Madagascar DWA L.L.C. All Rights Reserved. Welcome to the Popcorn ELT Readers series, a graded readers series for low-level learners of English.
DAY 1 - THE SOCIAL CONTEXT KRAKOW 08.40 12.00 Flight from London to Cracow 13.00 14.00 Check-in 15.30 17.30 SCHINDLER S MUSEUM In 2007 it was decided that the administration building of former Enamelware
Story Idea Workbook For use with coming up with screenplay ideas and reminding ourselves of how a story is put together. A story idea may come from personal experience, a newspaper article, inspiration
1 Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime The Syrian dictatorship s use of chemical weapons against its own people was terrible. But we must not let it overshadow the larger
American History Note Packet Name The Second World War 1. What impact does WWII have? Has it influenced other generations? 1 The Second World War 2. What role does America play in the buildup, time during,
Learning from Harvey Milk: Building Support and Coalitions for Change Written by: David Donahue s class, Schools, Sexuality, and Gender, at Mills College, Oakland, California, including the following students:
Open Cities Lesson 1: Different kinds of cities Worksheet Task 1 Find the countries on the map Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 1 Austria 2 Belgium 3 Bulgaria 4 Cyprus 5 Czech Republic 6 Denmark 7 Estonia
Oxford Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 11 items for: keywords : Manilius hiswmo Asia and the Great War: A Shared History Item type: book acprof:oso/9780199658190.001.0001 This book presents
Macbeth act V practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Recalling and Interpreting (The Tragedy of Macbeth, Act 5 ) 1. During
Chautauqua Summer Institute June 20-24, 2007 Lesson Plan Lesson Plan Title: America s Path to WWII Concept / Topic To Teach: How outside influences can force a country into action when it has no desire
"The films of Alexander are a new kind of film, of showing what can come out from the editing. It is good" Tinto Brass, Director: La Vacanza. Talking about Break-Up. At twenty-three, Alexander Tuschinski
YOUNG DIPLOMATS TOUR 2017 From the Convenor Hey there! In 2016, UN Youth Australia is offering an exciting new opportunity to explore one of the most historically significant regions of the world. Next
General Certificate of Secondary Education June 2014 History (Specification B) 90451 Unit 1: International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20th Century Friday 16 May 2014 9.00 am to 10.45 am For this
United States History II Final Exam Review 1. Because of the Neutrality Act of 1937, America could not? 2. Hitler made his first grab for territory by sending troops into what country? 3. In the 1930s,
Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: Who was primarily responsible for the : The United States or the Soviet Union? Materials: PowerPoint Copies of Timeline Copies of Documents A-D Copies of Guiding
Objectives: to recap the many possible causes of the First World War to analyse different interpretations of this event to consider why historians have had different opinions on the question. Read through
La Haine La Haine was premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in 1995 to great critical acclaim. Matthew Kassovitz was awarded Best Director and five times as many copies of the film were produced as would
The Novel ASSIGNMENT 8 Read the following Introduction to the Novel and the background to The Call of the Wild by Jack London. Then read pages 1 24 in the novel. When you finish your reading, study the
U.S. Support of the War at Home and Abroad The Main Idea As the United States sent increasing numbers of troops to defend South Vietnam, some Americans began to question the war. Content Statement/Learning
Journal of US-China Public Administration, February 2015, Vol. 12, No. 2, 153-165 doi: 10.17265/1548-6591/2015.02.008 D DAVID PUBLISHING Conditions for Development of the Private Health Insurance in Poland
President Woodrow Wilson & Entry into WWI At the beginning of his term President Woodrow Wilson once remarked, It would be an irony of fate if my administration had to deal chiefly with foreign affairs.
Community Dialogue Participant s Guide Many Religions, One Community: Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World Many Religions, One Community Guidelines for Interfaith Dialogues Remember the goals of
IRS Penalty Abatement Letters Quick Start Guide & Appeals Manual IRS Penalty Abatement Criteria The primary IRS penalty abatement reasonable cause criteria center around natural disasters, loss or destruction
NAME: Global History III Enlightenment Two Views of the Social Contract In the 1600s, two English thinkers, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment. Both
Cold War Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: Who was primarily responsible for the Cold War the United States or the Soviet Union? Materials: Cold War PowerPoint Copies of Cold War Timeline Copies
Constitutional Law of Human Rights and Freedoms and the Rights of National and Ethnic Communities or Minorities in the Croatia (as amended in May 2000) COMMITTEE FOR LEGISLATION OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Starting Over in the U.S. After Getting Your Green Card An Indispensible Handbook for Immigrants Elzbieta Baumgartner Starting Over in the U.S. After Getting Your Green Card An Indispensible Handbook for
1 st six weeks 1 Analyze the major civilizations before 1500 and evaluate the contributions of each era to the development of western civilization. (PASS 2-8) 2 Describe the political, social, and economic
Amanda Ahrens Global Studies China Lesson Plan Lesson Plan #1 Cultural Revolution: Reality vs. Government Claims Unit Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to analyze the point of view of the Cultural
World War II TOWARD A GLOBAL COMMUNITY (1900 PRESENT) WWII began on September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. The Germans used a strategy known as blitzkrieg (lightening war), which involved coordinated
World War II Origins and Home Front Chapters 34-35 Origins of WWII Soviet Union 1917 Russian Revolution Communism - Vladimir Lenin 1924 Lenin dies Joseph Stalin comes to power Origins of WWII - Dictators
Non-fiction: WWII Introduction to World War II WWII Introduction to World War II After World War I, Germany was defeated. The peace agreement that ended the war left the country humiliated but not crippled.
British Realist Cinema Dr David Forrest What is realist cinema? Social realism is a discursive term used by film critics and reviewers to describe films that aim to show the effects of environmental factors
Interview with the National Insurance Crime Bureau The following is from an interview with the Public Affairs Director, for The National Insurance Crime Bureau, NCIB, www.nicb.org. The NCIB is a not-for-profit
Historical Background of the Russian Revolution Animal Farm Animal Farm: Historical Allegory = Multiple Levels of Meaning 1845-1883: 1883: Soviet philosopher, Karl Marx promotes Communism (no private ownership
Canadian Military History Volume 25 Issue 1 Article 11 3-24-2016 "Americans at War in Foreign Forces: A History, 1914-1945 (Book Review)" by Chris Dickon Tyler Wentzell Recommended Citation Wentzell, Tyler
1 Money Laundering Statistics At an individual country level. In 2000, illegal narcotics sales in the United States were estimated by the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Drug
Chapter 15 Social Contract 15.1 Homework Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15 Study Questions : 1. What would be our lives in a state of nature according to Hobbes? 2. What are the four basic facts about the
Lesson One INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Aim To define crime and criminal psychology. Before we go on to consider the work of the criminal psychologist, let us first consider, what exactly is crime?
Comprehension and Discussion Activities for the Movie This module has been designed to accompany the film Mulan (1998). Mulan is based on the 4 th century Chinese legend of a young girl named Fa Mulan.
INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL Ray Bradbury s Fahrenheit 451 is a type of DYSTOPIC novel. That means it is about a future that is bleak, dark and dreary. The novel focuses on two central themes: 1. CENSORSHIP
Theories of Victimology Definitions - Binary: o Victim blamers victims might share the responsibility with offender if facilitation, precipitation or provocation of the event occurred. E.g. if you re on
The Holocaust 1933-1945 1945 Definition of the Holocaust The state-sponsored, sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and
No Taxation Without Representation!! Actions that led to the Revolutionary War Raising Taxes The French and Indian War had caused the British to be in a great deal of debt. They decided to keep a standing
WWII by the Numbers Charting and Graphing D-Day and WWII Data A Lesson from the Education Department The National WWII Museum 945 Magazine Street New Orleans, LA 70130 (504) 528-1944 www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education