1 Eastern Kentucky University Criminal Justice Graduate Student Guide
2 2 Table of Contents Overview Welcome Letter Criminal Justice Graduate Student Association How to Register Registration and Advising Dates Registration Instructions EKU Student Registration Processes and Helpful Hints Registration Errors First Day of Attendance Use It or Lose It Faculty/Staff Information Forms Scholarship Options Graduate Assistantships Changing Your Program Curriculum Checklist Independent Study Proposal (CRJ 897) Thesis Committee Approval/Change Form Report of Oral Examination/Oral Thesis Defense/Written Examination Comprehensive Exam Comprehensive Exam Packet and Study Guide Thesis Deadlines, Guidelines, and Binding Thesis Made Easy Handbook Guide to Preparation of Thesis and Specialist Projects Graduate Assistantship Handbook Miscellaneous University Calendar Tuition Information Inclement Weather Class/Event Cancellation Information EKU Student Affairs Alpha Phi Sigma Welcome Letter Payroll Calendar Justice and Safety Library
3 3 Overview Overview Welcome Letter Web Course/Online Course Policy
4 4 Eastern Kentucky University Criminal Justice Graduate Program To Our Students: Welcome to the Criminal Justice Graduate Program! This book contains important information you may need while in the program. Additional information is available at or by contacting the CRJ Graduate Department at (859) The following are important things to consider while completing the program: Contact Persons: Dr. Peter Kraska Tina Clark Graduate Program Director Stratton Room 467-A Stratton Room 466 (859) The Criminal Justice Graduate Program sends regular s to students accounts regarding important dates, events, and information. It is your responsibility to check your EKU account regularly. Please make sure your address is on the CRJ Grad mailing list by contacting Tina Clark at the above address. Online/Web Course Policy: It is the departments policy that first semester students and probationary or provisional admission students are not allowed to take online courses. If you enroll in such a course you will be dropped from enrollment before the semester starts. Exceptions are available at the discretion of the program coordinator. Degree Works: EKU has implemented a new degree progress tracking system called Degree Works. You can access it from the EKU homepage. You will have an academic plan saved within your record. Monitor this regularly and notify the graduate department of any deviations from your original plan. Application for Graduation: Must be completed online at There is a $55.00 fee for graduation. Applications received after this date will be assessed a late application charge. Thesis: If you plan to write a thesis you must identify three (3) committee members on the Thesis Committee Approval Form, prior to applying for admission to candidacy. Theses are usually due in completed form to the Graduate School one month prior to the end of the semester. Keep this in mind when planning your workload. Comprehensive Exams: If you are going to take comps, you must have applied for graduation and completed, or be in the process of completing, your core courses. You must submit in writing your intention of taking the exam. The comp exam is usually given one month prior to the end of the semester. The exam date and time will be announced through to your EKU address. You can also check with the graduate department at (859) We hope you find this book helpful. If you need assistance, please ask.
5 5 Criminal Justice Graduate Student Association The Criminal Justice Graduate Student Association (CJGSA) is an organization that: 1. Provides a forum where matters of concern to graduate and professional students may be discussed, where opinions on actions and proposals of the University Administration and campus departments may be expressed, and where proposals of the Administration, departments and graduate groups may be initiated 2. Conducts programs and services of special interest to graduate students. Activities within the CJGSA: 1. Brown Bags - discussions/lectures hosted by outside speakers, faculty, or graduate students 2. Movie Nights a movie pertaining to something criminal justice/academically related is shown. A movie night is usually followed by discussion (which can take place at another time in a brown bag) 3. Workshops/Seminars usually multi-hour long events arranged once or twice a year. Topics vary Membership requirements: 1. No minimum GPA requirements 2. $5 member dues required per academic year 3. Open to all students, faculty, and staff that support the goals of the organization (only Criminal Justice graduate students may vote and hold office)
6 6 How To Register The Where, What, When, and How of Registering at EKU Office of The Register: CPO Lancaster Ave. Richmond, KY (859) Telephone (859) Fax
7 7 Important Graduate Student Dates Below is a list of important dates and deadlines from the Colonel s Compass and can be found at Aug. 15 Aug. 20 Aug. 26 Aug. 26 Sept. 1 Sept. 3 Official Advising for Fall 2012 resumes Classes begin. Late fee registration begins. All students not currently enrolled (having 0.0 credit hours), who register for classes as of today will be assessed a $50 late registration fee. End of Add/Drop period: Last day to drop a full semester course without a "W" appearing on the university transcript, last day to register for or add additional fullsemester courses. Last day for full tuition refund. Last day to convert "Pass/Fail" or "Audit" classes to a normal grade and credit option. Completed forms must be returned to: Registrar's Office (SSB 239), or Corbin, Danville, or Manchester centers. Last day Graduate School will accept graduation applications for December 2011 graduation. Holiday, Labor Day. University is closed and classes are not in session. Sept. 7 Last day to convert a class from credit with normal grade to Pass/Fail or Audit. Completed forms must be returned to: Registrar s Office (SSB 239), or Corbin, Danville, or Manchester centers. Sept. 16 Last day to go online (EKU Direct) and withdraw without incurring a withdraw fee ($50 per credit hour e.g. $150 for a 3 credit hour course) up through the 4th week of a full -term. Oct. 14 Midnight (Sunday) - Faculty deadline for online (Banner Faculty Web) submission of mid-term grades (undergraduate only). Oct. 26 Last day to withdraw from the University. Last day to withdraw from a course with instructor s written signature and incur a $50 per credit hour fee (e.g. $150 for a 3 credit hour course). Students are allowed to withdraw up to the Friday of the 10th week of a
8 8 Nov. 5-6 Fall Break. University is closed and classes are not in session. Nov. 20 Nov. 26 Dec. 8 Dec. 10 Dec. 10 Dec. 15 Dec. 15 Dec. 17 Dec. 18 Thanksgiving Holiday begins for students at 9p.m. Night classes will meet. Classes resume. Classes end. Final exams begin. Masters thesis deadline for December 2011 graduates. Final exams end. Graduation Commencement Ceremony: diplomas mailed to graduates 6-8 weeks following commencement. See Graduation Information web page for details: Final grades deadline: 1p.m. Faculty to submit online via Banner Faculty Web. Final Grade Reports for students available online.
9 Registering for Classes 9 In order to register for classes, please go to and click on EKU Direct. Then click on Login to EKUDirect and follow these instructions: LOGIN 1. Click in the blank box next to User ID and enter your EKU ID number. If this is your first time logging in, see For First Time Users below. 2. Tab to PIN box and type in your PIN (Not the number your advisor gave you). 3. Click Login. 4. If you forget the PIN you selected, bring a photo ID to the EKU Registration Center located in SSB (Student Services Building) You will be asked to re-enter your pin for verification. Click on Login again. FOR FIRST TIME USERS: Your User ID is your EKU ID. Your initial PIN is your birth date in the form of mmddyy. For example, a birth date of February 13, 1949 would be entered as Your PIN is a 6-digit number, which will function like a password. The next screen will read: Your PIN has expired. Please change it now. In the first box, Re-enter Old PIN, type your birth date. In the second box, New PIN, select a 6-digit number that is different from your birth date and social security number, but easy for you to remember. This new PIN is the one you will use to access your information. Type your new PIN in the middle AND bottom boxes. The third box is for verification. All three boxes are required. Then click on the Login button. Read the Terms of Usage, and then click on Continue to accept the terms. If you click Don t Agree you will be logged out. REGISTER FOR CLASSES: Login. If you need to know how to login, please see item one. 1. Click on the Student Services & Financial Aid menu. 2. Click on Registration. 3. Click Add/Drop Classes. 4. Select the correct term and click Submit Term. 5. If you are prompted to enter your Alternate PIN you can call Tina Clark at (859) for this information. Enter the 6-digit number. Click Submit PIN. If you get an error that reads, Please contact the registration administrator for your time ticket, then check the registration schedule to see when you are able to register. If, according to the schedule, you are able to register, but you still see this message, go back to the registration menu and click Check Your Registration Status and review your earned hours. If your earned hours are in the range, con- Cont. on Following Page...
10 6. Enter the CRN s (the 5-digit numbers from the class schedule) you would like to register for. When you have entered all of them, click Submit Changes at the bottom of the page. 7. If you would like to look up available classes, click Class Search at the bottom of the page. 8. If you have errors click help at the top to the right for assistance. 9. To drop a course, (if the class is not listed you are not registered for the course), click the down arrow to the left of where the class is listed and choose drop course then click Submit Changes at the bottom of the page. If it is past the last day to drop the course, you will no longer have the option to drop the course. The option will be wd-withdraw and you will receive a W on your transcript for withdrawing from the course. Call (859) if you have any questions or problems with online registration. WHEN YOU ARE FINISHED PLEASE LOGOUT! Registering for Classes Cont. To keep your information secure, please click exit in the upper right and then close your browser. If you only exit someone may be able to hit the back button on the browser and view your information. EKU Student Students are automatically assigned an EKU student identification upon admission to the University. However, each student must activate their account in order to send and receive . You can activate your account by going to the EKU homepage, Choose the link under the My EKU heading on the lower left of the page. Click on Activate your student account now and read the Code of Ethics. Check or uncheck the appropriate boxes at the bottom of the screen, enter your EKU ID number and birthdate (MMDDYY format), and click submit. For complete information and instructions, go to To access your EKU student , click on the link under My EKU from the homepage or visit https:// stuowa.eku.edu/stu.asp directly. Enter your username and password. Your username is your First Name, an underscore (_), the first 17 characters of your Last Name, and could include up to 3 numbers to make it unique. You will be given the username and password when you complete the Code of Ethics form. Your default EKU password is the lower-case letters eku followed by your date of birth in MMDDYY format (ex: eku010180). If you experience problems with your EKU student account, please call the ITDS Help Desk at You must set up your EKU student account in order to access Blackboard. Please use your EKU student account for all correspondence with your instructors and in Blackboard. 10
11 11 Registration Process and Helpful Hints Adding and Dropping Courses: Official verification that a student is Registered Dropped or Withdrawn from a class is found only on the ADD/DROP page of the EKU Student Web (EKUDIRECT/Student Services/Registration/ADD/DROP) listed under STATUS. Beginning Fall 2010, EKU will have a new drop fee policy. All students wishing to withdraw from a course after the first four weeks of classes will be required to obtain a form from their instructor and will be charged a fee of $50 per credit hour. Cancelled Courses: Courses may be cancelled before the semester begins and students will then be administratively dropped from the course. This enrollment change will be reflected on the Add/Drop page by credit hours becoming "0.0", and there will be a message in the "Status" column. Course cancellations are the sole decision of the academic department offering the course and any and all questions about the course cancellation should be directed to the department chair. Students enrolled in classes that are cancelled will be contacted by the department office staff or mailed a letter by the Office of the Registrar. Students should recheck their registration (Add/Drop page online) often to verify that they have not been dropped from any classes! Do not assume that once you register nothing will change! Read further for a description of "Pre-Requisite Drop". CRJ 890 Topical Seminar in Criminal Justice. (1-3) May be retaken to a maximum of nine hours on different topics. CRJ 897 Independent Study in Criminal Justice. (1-6) Individual investigations in the field of criminal justice. Investigations may be conducted in the field and under the supervision of the research advisor and other staff member. Student must have the independent study proposal form approved by faculty supervisor and the Criminal Justice Graduate Program Coordinator in the College of Justice and Safety prior to enrollment. May be retaken up to a maximum of nine hours. Dropped Courses vs. Withdrawn Courses Courses "dropped" during the Add/Drop period will not appear on your academic record (transcript). If you drop a course after that date, you are considered to have "withdrawn" from the course and it will appear on your academic record with a notation of "W". The "W" will NOT be calculated into your grade point average (GPA). The midpoint date for full and partial semester classes also appears on the "Full & Partial Semester Term Dates" table of the Colonel's Compass. The midpoint of a partial-semester class should also appear on the course syllabus, if the date on the course syllabus does not agree with the date found in the Colonel's Compass the student should bring this discrepancy to the teacher's attention. Students are held to the dates published in the Colonel's Compass. Enrollment Verification: The National Student Clearinghouse (NSCL) is the official agent for all Enrollment Verifications such as those needed for health insurance and loan deferments. ALL Enrollment Verifications are obtained free of charge from the National Student Clearinghouse. How to generate your free EKU Enrollment Verification. Log on to your Student Web account (www.eku.edu, click on EKUDirect) Click on Student Services & Financial Aid. Scroll down until you see National Student Clearinghouse. Click on National Student Clearinghouse. Fill in required information and click Login. Click on Obtain an Enrollment Certificate. Wait patiently. The certificate will appear. Print your official enrollment certificate. Mail or deliver it to whoever requires verification of your enrollment at EKU! Note: Your computer must have Adobe Acrobat Reader to produce your verification. Use Internet Explorer as your browser, Exceptions to using National Student Clearinghouse: Good Student Discounts for this you need to print an official EKU Grade Report from the Student Web( EKUDIRECT/ Student Records/Printable Official Grade Report). Submit this Grade Report as proof that you qualify for the Good Student Discount. Statements of Good Standing (needed when taking courses at another institution; students obtain these from the EKU Registrar's Office, SSB 239. You may download the request form from the Registrar's web page, Continued on Following Page...
12 12 Registration Process and Helpful Hints Continued.. Graduate Students Please refer to the Graduate Catalog for complete details of all policies governing graduate students. You may also wish to go to the Graduate School web page, Late Registration Fee A non-refundable $50 late registration fee is in effect beginning the first day of classes. This fee is applied only if the student begins with 0.0 credit hours on the first day of classes and then enrolls for the first time during that day or after. Registration Errors Please refer to the menu links on the Colonel's Compass homepage. That registration errors link will take you to a page designed to help students with error messages they may receive from the online registration system. Registration Process: Students register (add, drop, or withdraw from classes) using the online registration system, the EKU Student Web account (click on EKUDirect on the EKU homepage). EKU staff is available to assist students with this system at the following locations: main campus in the Registrar's Office SSB 239, or the Corbin, Danville, or Manchester Centers. Registration questions should be directed to Once registered, you may make a change to your schedule at any time while such transactions are permitted (note dates on calendar). The online system will not allow changes once the deadline has passed. You may add full semester classes to your schedule through the first week of class. After that date, you may only add classes that have not yet begun. See Full & Partial Semester Term Dates, in the Colonel's Compass for Add/Drop dates for partial semester classes. Repeating Courses: Students may repeat a course in an attempt to better their grade. The grade earned in the last taking will replace (in the GPA calculation) the grade earned earlier. Any student attempting to enroll in a course for the third time will receive the "Repeat Limit" registration error. Registration will be prevented regardless of whether the student has completed the course previously or simply withdrawn. A student may enroll in the same course for a third or subsequent time only under unusual circumstances and with their college dean's permission in the form of a Repeat Limit Override entered into the EKU computerized registration system. This override is requested only through the office of the dean of the student's major. An override is just permission to register. Once the override is entered, the student must then still go online and register for the course. The Registrar's Office monitors student course registrations and will administratively cancel the registration before or during the term, or remove credit after completion of the term, of any student improperly repeating a class. Status: Verify your 'Status' on the ADD/DROP page of the online registration system. Check this often as the Registrar's Office may administratively drop or withdraw a student before or during a term for reasons such as course cancellation (decision of academic department offering the course), the student's failure to fulfill a course prerequisite, or in rare cases a violation of university policy (see university catalog). Student Load Fall and Spring Terms A full-time graduate student during Fall or Spring terms enrolls in 9 or more credit hours. A maximum academic load of 15 hours is considered permissible for exceptional graduate students, with dean's permission. Summer Term A full-time graduate Summer student is enrolled in 6-12 credit hours. Half-time status is at least 3 credit hours. Students are encouraged to not take more than one short term course at a time. Voter Registration Form: Instructions for printing and completing the voter registration card can be found on the internet at Withdrawing From a Class or From the University For directions on how to withdraw go to the Registrar's web page at scroll the buttons on the right side. Beginning Fall 2010, EKU will have a new drop fee policy. All students wishing to withdraw from a course after the first four weeks of classes will be required to obtain a form from their instructor and will be charged a fee of $50 per credit hour.
13 13 What to Do When You Get Registration Errors? An override for a section does NOT automatically register you into that section. An override only gives you permission to register. After you have been given an override you must go online and add the class. It is possible that you may need more than one override. You will need a specific and separate override for each registration error. Request an override BY NAME: Read any Registration Error Message carefully, look under STATUS. This will tell you which specific override you require. ERROR MESSAGE (See "STATUS") DEFINITION SOLUTION Closed Section Section is full - no seats available Choose a different section. OR It is possible to ask the department chair for a Capacity Override. However, the chair may say "no". Class Restriction Closed Section X Section Not Available For Web Add/Drop Course Status Dates Not Within Range For Part Of Term CORQ_Subject Course Number Req (ex:corq_ele 446G REQ) Level Restriction Link Error A1 Required (or A2, or B1 or B2 etc...) Course is restricted to specific students based on the number of earned hours as of the last semester completed at EKU. See CARES report for the number of hours you have completed. Select a different course. OR You may request a Class Restriction Override through the dean's office of the college offering the class. This section is cross-listed with another section Choose a different section. OR It is possible to and both sections meet in the same room. That ask the department chair for a Capacity room is now FULL. Override. However, the chair may say "no". The section has been cancelled. The department Choose a different section. is no longer offering this specific section. That registration activity is no longer available at this time. It is too late to add this course to your schedule. It is possible to add a course late but this requires a completed Late Add Form including instructor, department chair, and dean's signature. One or more separate courses may be required Register for all classes by submitting the CRN's to be taken at the same time. These courses are for all sections simultaneously. OR You may called co-requisites. (See course description in request a Co-Req Override from the catalog.) Department Chair. Course is restricted to a specific level (Graduate or Undergraduate) Undergraduate students wishing to enroll in graduate courses need special permission from the Graduate School Office. Permission is granted in the form of a Level Restriction Override. This course requires the simultaneous Register for both the lecture and one of the registration in a lecture and laboratory section. linked labs. The labs are listed directly You have tried to register in a lecture or lab underneath the lecture classes and have 0 credit section without the corresponding lab or lecture hours. Submit the CRN for the lecture and section. linked lab at the same time. Major Restriction Class is restricted to specific majors. Special permission and a Major Restriction Override must be obtained from the department chair. Maximum Hours Exceeded Program Restriction PRE-REQ and/or Test Error Repeat Limit Exceeds 1 Time Conflict With (CRN XXXXX) Registration exceeds the maximum number of hours permitted for that student for that term Permission to take more than the allotted hours must be obtained from the dean of the student's major. This section is restricted to specific programs. Change your major to that program. OR Contact department and request a Program Restriction Override. Class requires a pre-requisite or a specific test. (See course description in catalog). Pre-requisite and/or a specific test must be completed before you are allowed to register. OR You may request a Pre-Requisite Override from the department chair. Student has enrolled in the course at least twice Student must obtain a Repeat Limit Override before. This message will occur regardless of from the dean's office for the student's major. whether the student has ever completed the course. The section is conflicting with another section already on the student's schedule. Select a section that meets at a different time. OR Student may request a Time Conflicts Override from the department chair.
14 14 First Day of Attendance Use It or Lose It The Process: Students who know they will be absent should contact their instructor or the academic department office PRIOR TO THE 1 st CLASS MEETING to explain their absence and request that the instructor NOT drop them from the class. Classes meeting multiple times per week (MWF, TR, MW, etc.): If a student does not attend the 1 st class meeting of the term, as scheduled by the University, the instructor may request that the Registrar disenroll the student. Classes meeting one time per week: If a student does not attend the 1 st class meeting of the term, as scheduled by the University, the instructor may request that the Registrar disenroll the student. Online classes: Instructors of online classes who wish to employ the faculty drop option of "Use It or Lose It" should: -Detail on their syllabus student activities designed to serve as confirmation of participation. -Devise these as requirements whereby the online student proactively demonstrates connection, communication, and/or some other tangible participation (e.g. ing from their EKU account, submitting a document in Blackboard, responding to a survey). -Schedule the above participation requirements to begin as early as possible in the first week of the semester. -Use the absence of such mandatory (as per the syllabus) initial class participation as justification that the online student is "not attending"; and lacking appropriate communication with the instructor that student may then be disenrolled during the 1 st week of the term. The additional 1 st week data will enhance the ability of the Registrar and the Advising Office to identify phantom first-time students. This faculty provided data will be combined with other objective indicators held in Banner, as well as information from University Housing and Student Accounting, to help confirm identity of students who are registered but not attending the university. This new process will also assist departments with efficiency of course offerings, and prevent inflated "D", "F", "W" rates because of such students. Proposed Procedure: Faculty accesses dedicated roster through EKUDirect to indicate drop. Allows absent student's seat to be accessible to other students waiting for availability in that class. The Registrar will promptly drop the student from the class, per the instructor's directive, providing the information is relayed DURING THE 1ST WEEK OF CLASS. The Registrar's Office will each student immediately after the drop has been performed, via the student's EKU account; alerting the student that enrollment in one of his/her courses has been removed. May the dropped student get back into the class? -A dropped student may re-enroll himself/herself online, (provided seats are still available). -Or student may petition to register through the Late Enrollment process. -However the Late Enrollment process is dependent upon availability, and requires the written permission of the instructor, department chair, and dean of the college. -Depending upon the week of the term, the Late Enrollment process may also require approval at the Provost level. Can the faculty-drop option be used with shorter, partial-semester classes? -The add/drop period for short-term classes is abbreviated and varies with the number of weeks of the class. Often these classes begin after the onset of the full semester. -Thus, while the faculty-drop option may be requested, timing, communication with students, and coordination with the Office of the Registrar is essential. -The consequences of absence on the 1 st day of class should be detailed on the syllabus and communicated to enrolled students before the partial-semester class is scheduled to begin.
15 15 Faculty Name Contact Information Office Location Dr. Tom Barker Dr. Kristie Blevins Dr. Avi Brisman Dr. Terry Cox Dr. Chuck Fields Dr. Kishonna Gray Dr. Robin Haarr Dr. Scott Hunt Dr. Victor Kappeler Dr. Peter Kraska Dr. Ellen Leichtman Dr. Betsy Matthews Dr. Kevin Minor Professor Bill Nixon Dr. Derek Paulsen Dr. Gary Potter Dr. Irina Soderstrom Dr. Judah Schept Dr. Kenneth Tunnell Dr. Tyler Wall Dr. James Wells Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Phone: Stratton 403-A Stratton 110 Stratton 311 Stratton 408 Stratton 465 Stratton 449B Stratton 412-A Stratton 407 Stratton 467 Stratton 466 Stratton 405 Stratton 102 Stratton 104 Stratton 409 Stratton 410 Stratton 461 Stratton 108 Stratton 311 Stratton 465 Stratton 311 Stratton 103
16 16 Forms Please Stop by Stratton 466-B For Forms and Processing Instructions Scholarship Options Graduate Assistantships Change Your Program Curriculum Checklist Independent Study Proposal (CRJ 897) Thesis Committee Approval/Change Form Report of Oral Examination/Oral Thesis Defense/Written Examination
17 17 Dr. Rodney Gross Scholarship To be eligible, applicants must: Scholarship Options 1. Be African-American Kentucky residents 2. Be U.S. citizens 3. Be admitted to Eastern with the intention of pursuing either an undergraduate or graduate degree. 4. Have at least a 2.5 high school grade point average with extracurricular support in athletics, community and/or student government services; or at least a 3.0 grade point average without extracurricular support. 5. Not be on social or academic probation Students must reapply each academic year for continuation of the award and maintain satisfactory academic progress toward a degree objective. Recipients must participate in the Academic Monitoring Program. Awards are made on an annual basis. To obtain an application write to, or visit, the EKU Scholarship Office, SSB CPO 56, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY or call (859) Applications must be received no later than February 1 to be considered for the subsequent academic year. EKU African American Graduate Fellowship A limited number of $500 awards are available to qualified graduate students for the Fall and Spring semesters. To be eligible, applicants must be: 1. African-American 2. In-state residents 3. Part-time or have non-degree student status 4. All students who wish to be considered for this scholarship should complete the application at and mail it to the Graduate School before the start of the semester in which they are applying. Awards are on a first-come basis for students meeting the eligibility criteria. Fellowships may not be used in conjunction with the EKU Faculty/Staff Scholarship. Jack Kent Cooke Foundation Scholarships Recipient must be graduating senior or graduate enrolling in a U.S. or overseas graduate school in fall; cumulative minimum 3.5 GPA; U.S. citizenship not required All applications must be submitted through the Graduate School. Complete information about the program, including application forms and eligibility criteria are available on the Foundation website at
18 18 Graduate Assistantships Graduate Assistantships: The Criminal Justice Graduate Program provides graduate assistantships to qualified students. Duties may include teaching, research, or service related. Students should contact the graduate office, Stratton 467-A, for availability and details on the positions. Criteria: You must have applied for and been admitted to The Criminal Justice Graduate Program. You must have a high academic standing of approximately 3.0 (B) overall graduate grade point average and satisfactory GRE scores. If it is your first semester as a Graduate student, you will not have a graduate GPA. You must enroll as a full-time graduate student while on an assistantship (minimum of 9 semester hours of graduate credit in fall and spring, 6 semester hours of graduate credit in the summer). Stipends include a 6-credit hour tuition remission. The stipend beginning Fall 2009 is $5,425 per semester. Graduate Assistant positions can be applied to via EKU's employment website at Contact the graduate office, Stratton 467-A, to obtain detailed information on our available assistantships. The usual summer stipend is $3600. Important Information: Additional information on policies governing graduate assistantships can be found at Background checks are required of all graduate assistants. Students nominated for graduate assistantships must submit their information via the Human Resources Online Employment System to authorize initiation of the background check. You will be notified within 7 to 10 days of the outcome of the background screening.
19 19 Request to Change Your Program Graduate students who have been admitted to a graduate program may apply to change their program for one of the following reasons: Change from one degree or certificate program to another degree or certificate program* Request admission to another degree or certificate program while maintaining enrollment in the current program (dual degree)** Change from non-degree to a degree or certificate program When changing or adding a program, students must meet the admission requirements of the new program. Enrollment in one graduate program does not guarantee acceptance into a new program. All deadline dates for application apply for students seeking a program change. Keep in mind that different programs may have different requirements for standardized test scores and that official scores for any applicable test must be received prior to the granting of clear admission. *Students who apply for a program change from one program to another, and have not applied for graduation from the current program, will be dropped from their current program. **A maximum of 12 semester hours of coursework may be transferred from non-degree status to a degree or certificate program. Steps for Changing Your Program Complete the Graduate Application for Admission This form is necessary to update and prepare the student s registration information for the semester indicated on the application form. It must be received at least two weeks prior to registration dates. Please note: you cannot register until you have been accepted into you new program. You must notify the Graduate School Office if your registration plans change from that indicated on your application. Incomplete applications will not be processed. You do not need to pay the application fee again if you have previously done so. Meet all of the Admission Requirements for the new program. Enrollment in one graduate program does not guarantee acceptance into a new program. All completed applications must be received by the Application Deadlines for the semester in which you wish to enroll. Late or incomplete applications cannot be processed. NOTE: Credentials submitted for admission purposes become the property of the Eastern Kentucky University. If the applicant does not enroll within one year, the admission file is destroyed unless the student contacts the Graduate School.
20 Curriculum Checklist As you complete graduate courses, check them off on this list Students who begin the curriculum in the fall are encouraged to take CRJ 800 and CRJ 870 in their first semester and CRJ 888 in their second semester. 20 Course Credit Hours Grade Date Completed REQUIRED CORE 12 HOURS CRJ 800: Advanced Criminal Justice Studies 3 CRJ 870: Theories of Crime and Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 888: Research Methods in Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 808: Analysis of Criminal Justice Date 3 OR CRJ 875: Crime and Public Policy 3 ELECTIVES 24 HOURS OR 18 HOURS PLUS THESIS CRJ 801: History of Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 802: Violence Against Women 3 CRJ 810: Advanced Police Administration 3 CRJ 813: Analysis of Police Operation 3 CRJ 814: Policing and Society 3 CRJ 815: Policing Global Insecurity 3 CRJ 840: Punishment and Society 3 CRJ 842: Human Rights and Justice 3 CRJ 843: Advanced Issues in Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 844: Innocence Project Externship 3 Cont. On Following Page...
21 21 Curriculum Checklist Cont. Course Credit Hours Grade Date Completed ELECTIVES Cont. CRJ 846: Legal Issues in Criminal Justice Administration CRJ 871: Crime, Victims, and Criminals 3 CRJ 872: The Community Context of Crime 3 CRJ 873: Social Construction of Crime and Crime Control CRJ 874: Crime, Criminal Justice and Popular Culture CRJ 876: Organizational Crime 3 CRJ 877: Postmodernism and Justice 3 CRJ 878: Ideology and Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 879: Vice and Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 889: Qualitative Research Methods 3 CRJ 890: Topical Seminar in Criminal Justice (may be retaken up to a maximum of 9 hours on different topics) CRJ 890: Topical Seminar in Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 890: Topical Seminar in Criminal Justice 3 CRJ 897: Independent Study (may be retaken up to a maximum of 9 hours) CRJ 897: Independent Study 3 CRJ 897: Independent Study 3 CRJ 898: Thesis I 3 CRJ 899: Thesis II
22 EASTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY Criminal Justice Graduate Independent Study Proposal 22
23 23 EASTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY Criminal Justice Graduate Thesis Committee Circle One: APPROVAL CHANGE Last Name First Name EKU I.D. Date If this is a committee approval you must fill in your information as well as the original committee information. I, the unsigned, I agree to be on the above student s thesis committee. ORIGINAL COMMITTEE: Chair Signature Date Member Signature Date Member Signature Date If this is a committee change, you must fill in your information then obtain the signature of the new committee members. Finally, you must get your original committee members to sign off on the change as well. I, the unsigned, I agree to be on the above student s thesis committee. NEW COMMITTEE: Chair Signature Date Member Signature Date Member Signature Date
24 24 EASTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY Eastern Kentucky University The Graduate School CPO 68, SSB Lancaster Ave. Richmond, Kentucky (859) REPORT OF ORAL EXAMINATION/ORAL THESIS DEFENSE/WRITTEN EXAMINATION (Date) ( ) Report of Oral Examination ( ) Report of Oral Thesis Defense ( ) Report of Written Examination For (student name) (social security number) (type of degree) in (area or option) TO: Dean of the Graduate School The committee appointed to supervise the graduate program of the above named person has completed the comprehensive examination(s) and recommends that: 1. The examination(s) was successfully passed with a rating of: Excellent ( ) Above Average ( ) Average ( ) Below Average ( ) 2. The examination(s) was failed. ( ) SIGNED by all committee members: (Committee Chair) (Committee Member) - (Committee Member) Comments: (*specify requirements for examination retake) PLEASE NOTE: Committee chairpersons shall certify satisfactory completion of the comprehensives to the Dean of the Graduate School no later than ten days in advance of commencement. A review period of no less than 60 days nor more than one year is required of candidates who fail the comprehensive initially. Additional courses or thesis work may be required of a failing student. Comprehensive exams may not be retaken more than once of the master s or
25 25 MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION INFORMATION PACKET AND STUDY GUIDE The following information is intended to assist students in preparing for the comprehensive examination. See the graduate school website and/or the Assistant to the Criminal Justice Graduate Coordinator for specific information regarding deadlines and other procedural requirements. Students are reminded that it is their responsibility to meet all deadlines and procedural requirements. PHILOSOPHY OF THE COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION The comprehensive examination in criminal justice is a summative evaluation. Unlike regular coursework and formative assessments taken during completion of the degree, it is designed to be an integrative, independent endpoint assessment of the students' cumulative knowledge of graduate coursework in the field of criminal justice. It is not intended to test all areas of graduate education, but it allows the student to demonstrate acquired knowledge of important core theory and substantive applications of that theory in practice. The comprehensive examination is intended to show the independent ability of the student to synthesize and present adequate and appropriate knowledge without the focus of a course content outline or an instructor's prompting. Therefore, we do not tutor students regarding specific questions on the examination either prior to or following the exam. We also administer the comprehensive examination in a controlled setting providing equity for all students. If you have had a demonstrated disability which inhibited your ability to perform in classroom examinations on file with the University, you may make arrangements for the appropriate accommodation when registering for the examination (see below for further information on ADA regulations). The purpose of the examination is to assess your understanding and readiness to apply the theories and concepts in the profession of criminal justice - it is NOT part of your developmental curriculum. Therefore, students will not receive specific feedback about the areas of the exam or questions/responses on the exam. Student s responses to the questions will demonstrate their ability to integrate and apply their knowledge base developed over the course of the graduate degree program. The student responses are evaluated by a team of faculty readers who grade the exams on a double-blind setting. ALL exams are read by multiple readers and any exams with marginal evaluations are read additional times for valid final decisions. The Comprehensive Examination in Criminal Justice currently consists of two content sections. A student s performance on each section of the comprehensive examination will result in either a PASS or FAIL. Students may repeat those sections that do not receive a PASS at a subsequent administration of the examination. Students may only take the comprehensive exam twice. This guide is the product of collaboration among the Faculty of the Criminal Justice Graduate Program.
26 26 GENERAL INFORMATION Organization: The organization of the comprehensive examination is divided into two distinct areas. Students are required to answer one essay question from each of the two Criminal Justice Comprehensive Examination areas. Each essay question must contain unique and unduplicated information. Avoid using the same substantive material to answer two different questions, as duplications in the information used to support two separate answers will not receive full credit. There will be two options in each area from which to choose. AREA 1: General Criminal Justice AREA 2: Theory and Research Time Period: The comprehensive examination will be administered within a single day. The comprehensive examination day will be divided into one three-hour morning and one three-hour afternoon session, with a one-hour lunch break between sessions. Students will write on the General Criminal Justice area question in the morning and the Theory and Research area question in the afternoon. Additional Information: Students are NOT allowed to use any aids or materials not specifically approved by the Graduate Studies Committee (e.g., own paper, laptop computer, dictionary, or reference books). Students will be provided with all scrap paper needed for the examination. The test will be taken on a computer. Student s names are not written on the comprehensive examination. In order to guarantee anonymity in grading, students will use the last four digits of their EKU ID number and students are advised that this is the only identifying information that may be placed on their comprehensive examination. Faculty graders receive no student names as tied to particular examinations. SUGGESTIONS ON WRITING THE EXAMINATION 1. Answer the question. Many poor responses on exams are due to the failure to follow directions. If a question asks you to list four reasons why do not list only three. If a question calls for compare and contrast do not just make comparisons. a. Answer the question asked. This is the largest error made by students. b. Students may read the question quickly, establish a concept in their heads, and then write about it. What they write may be correct, but still may not fully answer the question asked.
27 27 c. Points will be deducted for unwarranted conclusions, unstated hypotheses, and for other omissions and commissions. d. Be able to support your answer when it is appropriate. Be able to cite theorists or other references. 2. Use your time wisely. Spend a few minutes thinking about the main points to be included in the answer. Plan the answer using an introduction-body-summary format. Do not rewrite the question. a. Carefully plan and outline each answer, devoting about 15 minutes of the allotted time for planning and outlining. Then use the remaining time to write out your response to the question. b. Read both questions first prior to writing an outline. 3. Writing skills matter. a. Answers should reflect graduate level writing skills. b. Many poor responses are not well organized. You may want to label, or identify each section of the question that you answer. c. Think out your answer before you begin writing. d. Write complete sentences. Make sure each one is clear and concise. Do not list information in outline form or with bullet points. Paragraphs should contain several coherent sentences and should develop one complete thought. e. Answers should be factual (supported by known facts on the subject), well stated (organized and presented in a reasonable manner), and logical (sequencing of items; follow a logical pattern). 4. Support your statements. a. At the master s level, you are expected to demonstrate a mastery of criminal justice areas and issues, and not merely reiterate material from a particular text or course. b. Your essays are expected to meet high standards in terms of organization, coherency, and critical thinking skills. c. Although it is primarily the student s responsibility to prepare themselves for the comprehensive examination, full-time faculty, as usual, will gladly meet with students regarding their academic careers and concerns regarding the comprehensive examinations. d. Avoid using the same materials to support both answers. At the Master s level, a student should have sufficient command of various aspects of the field to be able to cite different research and materials for each separate answer. 5. Utilize Critical Thinking Skills. a. Comprehensive examination areas require the students to consider the entire criminal justice field law enforcement, courts/law, and corrections. b. Reliance upon course materials and texts alone may not be sufficient. c. This examination requires the ability to integrate coherently and analytically the knowledge gained from all coursework, as well as further outside readings and study.
28 6. Develop Your Answers Fully. 28 a. Students are also expected to define terms clearly, develop concepts and arguments fully, and evaluate the issues at hand (i.e., pros/cons, strength/weaknesses, and accuracies/ inaccuracies). b. As indicated, statements should be firmly substantiated with facts. c. Again, the emphasis in a master s degree comprehensive examination is upon comprehension and mastery of criminal justice areas. d. The demonstration of critical thinking skills, including the development of arguments, is important to success in criminal justice. TIPS ON WRITING SKILLS Do NOT assume and AVOID being vague. Do not assume that the reader will know what you mean. Write with as high of a level of specificity as you are capable. USE criminological concepts/perspectives/models as appropriate and develop their meaning and significance beyond mere memorized definitions of terms. It is up to you to demonstrate your mastery of criminal justice concepts, models, and perspectives, as well as to substantiate information that is pertinent to the field. DEVELOP your statements and arguments, as concisely and comprehensively as possible. Where possible, SUPPORT your statements and arguments with specific facts, evidence, cases, or statistics. Make your statements as substantive as possible; avoid being vague, cryptic, or too general. In other words, make every word count. 1. Scoring Procedure SCORING THE EXAMINATION 2. Grading a. After the completed comprehensive examinations are gathered, copies of each answer sheet are made, identifiable by the four digits of the EKU ID number only. b. Multiple faculty members individually review the answers in their academic area of expertise and score each answer in accordance with a scoring rubric. c. Blind scoring is used. The faculty members cannot identify the student. d. In order to pass a section of the comprehensive exam, a student must receive a passing score from two readers. a. Students MUST PASS BOTH AREAS in order to successfully pass the CRJ Comprehensive Examination. Each section will be graded on a pass/fail basis. b. Avoid using the same substantive material to answer both questions. Duplication of answers will result in a failure to pass one of the questions. c. Two faculty readers will read and grade each area of each student s comprehensive examination. In the event of a fail by one reader and a pass by the other, the Graduate Program Coordinator becomes the tiebreaker in order to determine the pass or fail for that particular area. 3. Failures to Pass & Re-writing of the Comprehensive Examination: a. Students will be required to re-take only the failed area(s). The re-take area question will not be the same question as the one failed. b. Re-take examinations can be taken not less than 60 days nor more than one year after the exam is failed. Students have only seven years from their acceptance into the program within which to complete their degree, to include the comprehensive examination.
29 29 4. Notification of Results a. Approximately four weeks after the date of the examination, each student will receive a letter from The Graduate School indicating the areas in which the student passed and failed. b. No individual reader results (scores) will be released to the student. c. In order to pass the exam as a whole, the student must receive a pass on both sections on the exam. d. If the student does not receive a pass on one section, the student will have to retake that section of the exam only. The student will not have to retake both sections on the exam, just the one they did not pass. e. Readers comments on sections not passed may include: Insufficient interpretation of key problem areas Comprehensive knowledge not demonstrated Poorly written responses Lacking in factual information Lacking in supporting detail Did not answer question Information provided was inadequate/incorrect/incomplete Poorly organized written response Lacking depth in response Unsubstantiated assumptions Unclear presentation of information 5. American Disabilities Act (ADA) Accommodations: a. Reasonable accommodations will be made available for those students requiring them (e.g., additional time). a. Special accommodations are available only to those students who have submitted an appropriate petition for approval when filing to take the comprehensive examination. b. Students will be notified of the status of their request as soon as possible before the scheduled examination date. c. Per ADA regulations, such a request must be supported by official medical documentation (see the Assistant to the Graduate Coordinator to contact the Office of Services for Individuals with Disabilities for further information and paperwork). PREPARING FOR THE EXAMINATION 1. Create/join a study group. Peer evaluation and feedback is most helpful in finding your own strengths and weaknesses and is an excellent source of support. 2. Practice, practice, practice. Get several case studies and vignettes. Practice assessing the question, putting together your resources, developing a strategic and organized presentation, and discussing legal and ethical issues.
30 30 3. Review syllabi, textbooks, and course notes from each of the graduate courses. 4. Practice writing an answer using the example questions below. NOTE: These questions are only a sample of possible questions. 5. Have other students grade your responses. a. Remember that the comprehensive questions will require you to have knowledge of theories of crime, criminal behavior, and substantive information about crime trends. Emphasize concepts but also include sufficient detail to support your ideas, and think critically about issues raised. b. You then need to organize and present a reasonably concise response. c. The essence for studying for the comps is not how much you can quote (or memorize) but how your knowledge is integrated with your professional philosophy and applied experiences. Demonstrating how you would implement these academic concepts in an applied situation is an important part of the evaluation of your answers. d. It is crucial that you demonstrate the basic academic knowledge in our field, at the i. Master s level, that is, that you understand and can describe theories and substantive research and other statistical data, as well as showing your competence to use this knowledge within an applied setting.
31 31 SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AREA ONE: GENERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE OVERVIEW The first set of issues relates to Criminal Justice. When responding to a specific Criminal Justice examination question students should feel free to use relevant materials from Criminal Justice, criminology, policing, corrections, law and other social sciences. SAMPLE QUESTIONS General Instructions: 1. Label your answer either General Criminal Justice Question 1 or General Criminal Justice Question 2 at the top of each page of your answer. 2. Important! Justify your answer using course-relevant theories and concepts, cases, and examples. Explain which concepts and theories are relevant and why. Support your answers with statistics, data, research findings, and other empirical evidence or authority. Sample Question #1 Explain the process of how crime statistics can be "used" in order to create new criminal justice policies. In your answer be sure to explain the role of data gathering, the media, fear of crime, politicians and interest groups in this process. Use an example to explain the entire process including a discussion of the impact of the new policy on overall CJ policy. Sample Question #2 Discuss fully the different ways in which prison has become a major industry and the potential problems with this. Sample Question #3 Nils Christie has argued that the crime control industry in the United States is beginning to look like the equivalent of the Russian gulag, Criminologist Stephen Richards has also referred to the term gulag in describing the American prison system. In fact, they are right. Today prisons are found in every part of the United States, the prison system is ubiquitous. Those prisons are characterized by systematic abuses of human rights including extreme brutality and violence. Finally, the American prison system produces forced, cheap ("slave") labor for corporations. Is the American prison system now the American gulag? What changes have occurred in the incarcerations rates of Americans over the past two decades? What social forces are changing American prisons? Has the process of imprisonment become an economic necessity rather than a response to crime? Are prisons simply a mode of cheap production and a source of employment for under-educated and otherwise untalented workers? What else does Christie mean by the crime control industry?
32 32 Sample Question #4 Apartheid is a state policy that is designed to produce racial discrimination and segregation. As an official policy, apartheid is usually associated with the South African government which faced worldwide outrage and disapproval, with the apartheid government eventually failing under internal dissent and international economic sanctions. Is the criminal justice system involved in an official state policy of apartheid in the United States? Is that policy any less reprehensible than the policies of the South American Government? Is the criminal justice system's impact on segregation a latent or manifest goal of criminal justice policy? Sample Question #5 It is almost 8 years since 9-11 and we have seen major shifts across a range of political, social and individual behavior. Given the history of how the CRJ system tends to react to the "crime of the day," media hype, or public fear, describe how the events since 9-11 has or will in the future drive CRJ policy and laws (patriot act, definitions of torture). You may consider the possible impact on the components of the CRJ system (number of street cops, budget incentives, budget cuts). You may hypothesize about the potential effects on the behavior of CRJ practitioners (racial profiling, militarization, emphasis on intelligence gathering). You may talk about shifts in priorities, values, resources, positive and negative consequences. You should be able to frame your remarks within some historical or theoretical context, i.e., some theoretical explanation for the social and political response to 911 and provide some example(s) of similar reactions in the past. Sample Question #6 Given the history of how the CRJ system tends to react to the "crime de jure", media hype or public fear, describe how the events since 9-11 has or will drive CRJ policy and laws, possible impact on the components of the CRJ system, potential effects on the behavior of CRJ practitioners. You may talk about shifts in priorities, values, resources, positive and negative consequences. You should be able to frame your remarks within some historical or theoretical context. Sample Question #7 Describe America's imprisonment binge? What do recent trends in imprisonment indicate? How have both the most recent war on drugs and sentencing reform impacted this binge? How are these issues relevant for understanding the crime control industry? Your answer must cite the relevant literature. Sample Question #8 The Criminal Justice System does not function in a vacuum. Its actions, growth and changes take place within a social, political, and cultural context. Identify and discuss: I) three of the most important trends facing today's criminal justice system; 2) the types of specific changes that are occurring within the system as a result of these trends; and 3) the likely future direction(s) the system might be headed in light of these trends. Sample Question #9 Identify a major contemporary issue facing our society and the criminal justice system. Discuss the trends associated with the issue, the differing ideological positions taken by those who have a stake in the issue, and the scholarly research and literature which addresses the issue.
33 33 Sample Question #10 Choose a major contemporary criminal justice issue. Detail the nature of the issue, the associated aspects of the issue, and why it is socially important. In your discussion of the issue make sure that you discuss all aspects of the issue (pro/con; liberal/radical) and come to a policy conclusion based on existing research and theory. AREA TWO: THEORY AND RESEARCH OVERVIEW The second set of issues relates to social science theory and research methods. When responding to a specific Theory and Research question, students should place equal emphasis on theory and research and are free to draw from relevant materials in Criminal Justice, criminology, policing, corrections, law and other social sciences. In responding to a specific question on these issues students should be mindful that an adequate response requires demonstration of a detailed understanding of the inter-relationships between social sciences theory and research methods and techniques. In short, the Graduate Faculty recognizes that students may have different areas of specialization. Therefore students are allowed to draw from their area of specialization as long as their response answers the examination question. SAMPLE QUESTIONS General Instructions: 1. Label your answer either Theory and Research Question 1 or Theory and Research Question 2 at the top of each page of your answer. 2. Important! Justify your answer using course-relevant theories and concepts, cases, and examples. Explain which concepts and theories are relevant and why. Support your answers with statistics, data, research findings, and other empirical evidence or authority. Sample Question #1 In the context of conducting research on police deviance in small and rural police department describe how you would go about conducting this research using both a quantitative approach and a qualitative approach. In framing your answer is sure to include the following: a. Complete discussion of the strategies and methods you would employ for both styles. b. Discuss the pros and cons of using each style of research as well as any inherent limitations in either style. Sample Question #2 In an attempt to gauge public opinion about the death penalty in Kentucky, EKU has decided to conduct a survey. Because you are my graduate assistant I am going to have you do all of the work, for which I will take all of the credit. In conducting this survey discuss the sample size, sampling technique and sampling frame that you will employ. Make sure to support your decisions completely and discuss all of the limitations in the decisions you have made.
34 34 Sample Question #3 Discuss the different techniques most commonly used in conducting qualitative research. In your discussion be sure to discuss the limitations and benefits of each method as well in what situation the technique is best suited for research. Sample Question #4 Describe some of the ethical problems associated with both quantitative and qualitative research. Sample Question #5 Several states have recently gravitated to increasing punitiveness for persistent offenders by creating "three strikes" or persistent felony offender statutes. What theoretical orientation is this approach based on? Explain your answer. How might you examine the effectiveness of such a program? That is, describe a research design that could be used to examine whether your program has actually decreased violence. What type of design is it? What results would suggest that your program worked? What issues within the criminal justice system may help or hinder the effectiveness of such a program? Finally, what are some of the underlying assumptions about the problem, the program, or the criminal justice system's ability to carry out the program, that might be problematic or that need to be addressed more fully. Sample Question #6 Arguably, the most substantial strategic development in policing over the past 20 years has been community policing. Questions remain, however, about the effectiveness and feasibility of community policing. For this question, (1) describe in detail a research design for a study that would shed significant light on the effectiveness and feasibility of community policing, and then (2) critique your own design, discussing important conceptual and measurement issues and identifying the primary threats to the validity of your study's findings. Sample Question #7 High emphasis is placed in our discipline, on explaining fluctuations in the crime rate (traditional criminological theory). Our program in criminal justice studies places equal emphasis on making theoretical sense of fluctuations in rates of criminal justice size and activity. Using the literature and research you have been exposed to in this program, please discuss why rates of criminal justice size and activity have changed so dramatically over the last thirty years. Sample Question #8 Select and explain a social problem associated with crime and delinquency. From the social constructionist perspective, describe how the problem came into being (the process of social construction). Making sure you address the role of media, criminal justice and political officials, and power in the social construction of this problem.
35 35 Sample Question #9 Select any micro (i.e. processual) theory and fully describe how it explains law making and law breaking (including street and white collar crime). Select any macro (i.e. structural) theory and fully describe how it explains law making and law breaking (include street and white collar crime.) Your answer must cite relevant literature. Sample Question #10 All theories of crime imply policies/social changes which might help to ameliorate the problem. Using 1) contemporary biological theories, 2) Merton's theory of anomie, and 3) the late-modern and/or postmodern school of thought, detail the implications of each for crime control/criminal justice policy. Explain your answers fully. Sample Question #11 Due to several recent drinking related deaths on college campuses, the subject of binge drinking has become a politically hot topic. As a leading researcher you have been asked to conduct a study to determine the nature and extent of binge drinking on college campuses nationwide. In conducting your study you are to conceptualize, operationalize and create indicators for "binge drinking" and other important concepts. In addition you need to discuss the sample size, sampling frame and sampling technique you will use in your research. Finally, you will need to discuss how you will ensure the reliability and validity of your results. Fully support the decisions you make. Sample Question #12 There has been a good amount of controversy in our field, and in the social sciences as a whole, about the debate and differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. Please discuss the basic contours, concepts, and foundational ideas/assumptions that revolve around this issue (using appropriate examples of both qualitative and quantitative research conducted in our field), and then discuss the more recent train of thought that views these two approaches as compatible and mutually enhancing ("mixed methods approach") Sample Question #13 A long-standing debate in criminology centers on the measurement of crime. While there is no perfect indicator of how much crime exists in our society, previous empirical research has shown that there are several sources of data that can be used to operationalize the concept of crime. Discuss the major sources (or types) of crime data. Include in your discussion a review of a few studies that have employed one or more of these crime data sources. Also, provide a thorough evaluation of the strengths and shortcomings of each source of crime data. To focus your essay, consider the issues associated with defining, measuring, and collecting data on sexual assault victimization of women. Be sure to explain the various view points of sexual assault definitions from a theoretical, philosophical, and research perspective where appropriate. Also, provide a historical development context within which sexual assault definitions, measurement, and data collection have evolved Sample Question #14 Select one broad social theory (not criminological) or ideological orientation and explain how it informs criminological theory. Make sure to draw direct linkages between the social theory and a criminological theory. Address how the social theory frames the criminological discourse and understanding. Finally, link these observations to how research methods are selected, used and what findings they produce.
36 36 MASTER S IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE READING LIST The following list is not intended to be an exhaustive nor a definitive list of all the available literature in criminal justice. Instead, it is offered as an additional resource for students to draw upon in preparing for the exams. CRJ 800 Kraska, P. B. (2004). Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations. Waveland Press. CRJ 808 Kraska, P.B. (2004). Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations. Waveland Press. CRJ870 Williams, F., and McShane, M. (2003). Criminological Theory (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Vintage. Vold, G. B., Bernard, T. J., and Snipes, J. B. (2002). Theoretical Criminology. Oxford University Press. Messner, S. E., and Rosenfeld, R. (2000). Crime and the American Dream. Wadsworth. Lynch, M., and Michalowski, R. (2006). A New Primer in Radical Criminology. Criminal Justice Press. Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., and Young, J. (2008). Cultural Criminology. Sage. CRJ875 Kappeler, V., and Potter, G. (2004). The Mythology of Crime and Criminal Justice (4th ed.). Waveland Press. Lynch, M., and Michalowski, R. (2006). Critical Perspectives on Crime, Power & Identity. Criminal Justice Press. Shelden, R. (2008). Controlling the Dangerous Classes. Allyn & Bacon. CRJ 888 Cook, T.D., and Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-Experimentation. Houghton Mufflin Co. Kraska, P., and Neuman, W. (2008). Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods. Allyn and Bacon. Kuhn, T. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. Lofland, J., and Lofland, L. H. (1984). Analyzing Social Settings (2nd ed.). Wadsworth.
37 37 CRJ 889 Berg, Bruce L. (2007). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences (6th ed.). Allyn and Bacon. COR 808 Diekhoff, G. (1992). Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Univariate, Bivariate, Multivariate. Wm. C. Brown Publishers. Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survivor Manual (3rd ed.). McGraw Hill. Soderstrom, I. R. (2008). Introductory Criminal Justice Statistics. Waveland Press. COR 818 Babbie, E. (2007). The Practice of Social Research (11th ed.). Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Hagan, F. E. (2006). Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology (8th ed.). Allyn and Bacon. Minor, K. I., Wells, J. B., Cobb, K., Lawrence, B., and Cox, T. (2005). Test Validity in Justice and Safety Training Contexts. A Study of Criterion Referenced Assessment in a Police Academy. Charles C. Thomas.
38 38 Thesis Thesis Deadlines Theses are typically due one month prior to the end of the semester in which you wish to graduate. Carefully check the Graduate School website and with the CRJ Graduate department for all deadlines that pertain to your specific semester of graduation. Thesis Guidelines In submitting your thesis to the Graduate School, you are encouraged to first submit your final thesis as approved by your committee on inexpensive copy paper. When submitting your thesis, please include contact information, e.g. address and home or cell phone numbers. The Graduate School will review your thesis for form and formatting. They will contact you with any changes that are required. At that time you can print two copies on % cotton (20-24 weight) for final submission. You must submit two approval pages signed by your committee on the same quality paper as well as two signed permission to use forms. You may submit additional approval pages if you so desire which will be signed by the Dean of the Graduate School and returned to you. Thesis Binding You must submit two final copies of your thesis to the main library for binding. The Graduate School will keep both copies. If you would like additional copies for yourself, your thesis committee members, family members, etc.; contact the main library. They will explain the current binding charges and the process involved.
39 39 THESIS MADE EASY Eastern Kentucky University Created May 9, 2002 By: Jason English Deb Glovak Scott Graves Sara Miller Billy Oakley Matt Sharp Revised May 4, 2009 By: Jessica Anderson Gregg Jones Samuel Reid
40 40 Getting Started? So you ve decided to write a thesis? Are you crazy, do you know how hard it is? Just kidding, it isn t as bad as you think. In fact, writing a thesis is something that virtually any student can do with the right planning and determination. Even so, there are a few tips and tricks that you might be able to acquire prior to beginning the process. This handbook was created by students to help guide you through the thesis writing process as painlessly as possible. Although some of these suggestions might not work in every situation, it will certainly provide some insight into the process. With the right game plan you will find that the thesis writing process is well within your limits as a graduate student. Good Luck!
41 TABLE OF CONTENTS 41 TOPICS PAGE IDEA GENERATION..41 CHOSSING YOUR THESIS COMMITTEE..41 TIMELINE OF YOUR THESIS DEFENSE OF YOUR THESIS BASIC THESIS MECHANICS...43 CHAPTER I- INTRODUCTION 46 CHAPTER II- REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.47 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY...48 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS/FINDINGS...50 CHAPTER V- SUMMARY/CONCLUSION..51 BIBLIOGRAPHY/APPENDICES..52 HELPFUL HINTS/FURTHER READING
42 42 IDEA GENERATION SOME HELPFUL HINTS IN IDEA GENERATION What are you interested in? Picking a topic that truly interests you can be a great help in keeping you on track and focused in a research project of this magnitude. Do not expect it to just come to you! This is a common mistake. Stay up to date on current issues/ problems in your field. The bottom line is you have to do the leg work. Communication is also helpful in this stage as well. Professors are often working on a project, or have data on a previous project that can save you a lot of time if you just ask. Essays in other classes are also important. If you already have your idea, you can do essays in your classes that pertain to part of your thesis topic. This will help you when it comes time to really get going on your thesis. One common misconception is that you can t start with the data. You can start by analyzing your data. This can save you valuable time in your literature review. Always balance your ideas with feasibility of time, your own abilities, data availability, and the type of analysis you are going to do. When thinking about a potential idea, ask yourself four questions: What? Why? Who Cares? Why does it matter? Essentially, you will need to answer these questions. CHOSING YOUR THESIS COMMITTEE GETTING YOUR COMMITTEE TOGETHER Less formal here than it sounds Talk to different faculty members you think will be good May start with one faculty member who can point you towards other faculty who have an interest in your topic The chair is the most important position on the committee. It may be difficult to get a commitment for this position
43 Being a chair is a lot of work; reading, editing, etc. Must be interested in topic 43 Easier to get them to be a reader. No written rules when it comes to a faculty using your work to publish something of their own (make sure arrangements are pre-made) If a reader puts in a lot of work, they may want to ask you about co-authorship; the same as you would the chair. WORKING WITH YOUR COMMITTEE Don t expect a lot of feedback from readers Chair runs the show (keep in mind when selecting chair) Additional changes will not come till the end Rule #1: keep the reader informed Set up your own defense; ask committee if they are free; follow-up with a reminder TIMELINE OF YOUR THESIS There is no set timeline for thesis completion. Thesis chair members will make their own for you. It is imperative that students allow plenty of time to complete the thesis. You should not wait until the final semester to begin compiling your thesis. There are many factors and steps to be taken that may delay the final submission. The thesis committee chair will most likely request to see a rough draft to keep you on the right track. Edits to your work may be necessary to ensure you are logically coherent, utilizing words appropriately and a final read to see the effects of the changes on the document. Thesis I can be taken when you are ready. Ordinarily, you must take two semesters of classes before taking Thesis I. The course is designed to help generate ideas for topics and identify the processes necessary for completion (i.e. selection of your committee, thesis proposal, etc.) Thesis II can be taken any time after Thesis I. You must have your committee sheet ready with member signatures. You do not have to graduate the semester you are taking Thesis II. The course is designed to help you with the completion of your thesis. Contents of the course are entirely up to the instructor, who is also the Chair of your thesis committee.
44 DEFENSE OF YOUR THESIS 44 Not that big a deal unless you bring something last-second You wont fail because of a bad defense but because your thesis is bad Some faculty require more at your defense than others (presentation in PowerPoint, etc) APPROVAL SHEET BASIC THESIS MECHANICS Must be on the same brand and weight of cotton paper and be in the same basic type face Black ink is recommended for the signatures The number of signature lines must equal the number of committee members Approval sheets are not numbered nor are they counted in the numbering sequence. STATEMENT OF PERMISSION TO USE Must be on the same brand and weight of cotton paper and be in the same basic type face The Statement of Permission to sue follows the approval sheet. Statements of Permission to use are not assigned a number nor are they counted in the numbering sequence. TITLE PAGE This page is assigned roman numeral I although the number does not appear on the page The date used is the month and year of commencement
45 The student s name must appear as he/she is registered at the institution 45 COPYRIGHT PAGE This page is included only if the manuscript is being formally copyrighted, either through University Microfilms or with the U.S. Government Copyright Form TX DEDICATION PAGE If the student wishes to dedicate the manuscript, the dedication statement is included at this point ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This page is to thank those who have helped in the process of obtaining the graduate degree. Permissions to quote copyrighted material are listed here, as well as acknowledgements for grants and special funding. ABSTRACT A thesis/specialist project may have an abstract An abstract should include: (1) a short statement concerning the area of investigation, (2) a brief discussion of methods and procedures, (3) a brief summary of findings, and (4) conclusions reached in the study. There is no word limit PREFACE A personal statement about the thesis project would be included in a preface. The tone of a preface, however, must be academic and appropriate to a scholarly work. TABLE OF CONTENTS May vary in style and amount of information. Chapter or Section title, the Bibliography or List of References, the Appendix No preliminary pages with Roman numerals are included in the Table of Contents
46 Table of Contents entries start with page 1 46 LIST OF TABLES/FIGURES/SLATES If there are 5 or more tables or figures, then a List of Tables/Figures must be included Any tables or figures appearing in the appendix are also included Each tables or figure must have a different title and must be listed exactly as they appear in the on the table/figure LIST OF SYMBOLS/LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/NOMENCLAUTE The title of this material should reflect its content and may be included to define specialized terms or symbols. This information may also be placed in an appendix TEXT The manuscript can be divided into either Chapter or Sections and must be consistent throughout Each chapter or section must be numbered consecutively and begin on a new page The Introduction can either be the first chapter/section or it may precede the first chapter or section Any logical subdivision of a chapter/section is permissible but most remain consistent throughout the manuscript The subdivisions do not begin on a new page unless there is not room for the complete heading and at least 2 lines of text at the bottom of the page PHYSCIAL LAYOUT OF YOUR THESIS SPACING- The entire text of your thesis should be double spaced for clarity and ease in reading. You may use single spacing when inserting a quote FONT- Test font may be either 10 or 12-point font. New Times Roman or Courier New are acceptable for the typeface, others may also be acceptable. Make sure to keep the style consistent throughout your thesis. You may use bold or italicized lettering for emphasis or quotations, but not as your main form of text
47 MARGINS Left if to be no less than 1 ½ inches. On the right side, top, and bottom, the correct margins can be no less than 1 inch. It is important to remember these guidelines include images, graphs and page numbering PAGINATION Small roman numerals are used in pages preceding the actual text of the thesis. (ii, for example). Actual page numbers begin on the first page of the text of the thesis. The page numbers must be either centered at the bottom of the page, or in the right corner. The page numbering must remain constant throughout the entire thesis PAPER- Paper must be 50% cotton, 20lb. White paper. Local office supply stores should have the paper you need COPIES- the Graduate School at Eastern Kentucky University requires a graduate thesis candidate to submit (2) copies of the thesis. More may be required depending on the committee members. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Before beginning an introduction, it is important to understand the purpose of the introduction. Introductions are a way to entice the reader into wanting to read your piece of writing. This can be done several ways, such as staring with an interesting historical fact, or by showing a unique angle to the topic at hand. Regardless of the method, it is imperative that you make the introduction interesting. SOME KEY INGREDIANTS/CHECK LIST Introduction-broad overview of problem being studied Background of the problem (e.g. educational trends related to the problem, unresolved issues, social concerns) Statement of the problem situation (Basic difficulty-area of concern) Purpose of the study (goal oriented), emphasize practical outcomes. Answer the WHY question Questions to be answered or objective to be investigate Conceptual or substantive assumptions (postulates) Rationale and theoretical framework (when appropriate) Definition of the research problem Statement of hypotheses 47
48 Importance of significance of the study (may overlap with statement of the problem) 48 Definition of terms (largely conceptual here; operational definitions may follow in Mythology chapter) Scope of the study (narrow of focus) Outline of the remainder of the thesis or proposal Final paragraph should state why study is important, and what is going to happen within the study The essential purpose of this section is to state your purpose, you want to hook the reader. This is accomplished through a review of existing literature and contextualizing to the reader the relevance to your project/study. Your collective literature review is much like doing an exhaustive introduction to your whole work (thesis). Your last paragraph of your literature review should be summarize/review what you did; it should answer the question why it is important. Your literature review should be absolutely objective. Remember at this point you are writing in a tone of having not done anything else yet. Save your opinions and findings for their appropriate sections. The following section serves as a helpful checklist for the writer to ensure that he/she has everything required/appropriate for their literature review: SOME KEY INGREDIANTS/CHECKLIST Organization of the present chapter-overview Historical Background (if necessary) CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PURPOSES TO BE SERVED BY REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Acquaint reader with existing studies relative to what has been found, who has done the work, when and where latest research studies were completed, and what approaches involving research studies were completed, and what approaches involving research methodology, instrumentation, and statistical analyses were followed (literature review of methodology sometimes saved for chapter on methodology)
49 Establish possible need for study and likelihood for obtaining meaningful, relevant, and significant results. Furnish from delineation of various theoretical positions a conceptual framework affording bases for generation of hypothesis and statement of their rationale (when appropriate). General integrative reviews cited that relate to the problem situation or research problem such as those found in Review of Educational Research, or Psychological Bulletins. Specific books, monographs, bulletins, reports, and research articles-preference shown in most instances for literature of the last ten years. Unpublished materials (e.g. dissertations, theses, papers presented at recent professional meetings not yet in published form, but possibly available through ERIC) Selection and arrangement of literature review often in terms of questions to be considered, hypothesis set forth, or objectives or specific purposes delineated in problem chapter. Summary of literature review (very brief). CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY PURPOSE OF THE METHODOLOGY SECTION The main purpose of the methodology section is to describe, in great detail, how you gained your knowledge. What is specifically required of the methodology section is highly dependent on the characteristics of your study. The type of study, qualitative or quantitative, being conducted will guide some of the content of the methodology. The section should be written straightforward with little opinion. Imagine explaining the research process to a friend. The description of the study must provide enough basic information on the sample, the materials, and the procedures to allow for replication. There are numerous research methods. Below are the definitions of some research methods that are popular in social science. Historical research- Involves linking together pieces of information found in various sources to explain an event of phenomenon. 49
50 In-depth Interviews- Simply, a conversation with the purpose of gaining information on the subject being studied. There are very powerful tools in qualitative research. Semiotics-Stemming from linguistics, semiotics is the study of imagery and the implications imagery can have. Can be conducted through a highly quantitative process even though the ideology driving semiotics is qualitative. Often look at the structure behind the image. Ethnography- Places the researcher into the natural environment of a group or phenomenon being studied. Distinguish the study as a micro or macro ethnographic study. It is important to examine how your data was gathered, my ethic questions arising, and what characteristic is being focused on. Secondary Analysis- Uses existing data, collected for previous studies, and attempts to analyze this data in a new research interest. (Heaton, 1998) Content Analysis- Often can be both quantitative and qualitative. Content analysis is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain words or concepts within texts or sets of texts. Researches quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of such words and concepts, then make inferences about the messages within the texts, the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of which these are a part (The Colorado State University Writing Center, 2001). The data examined can be derived from newspapers, television, magazines, speeches, etc. Quantitative survey- Probably the most widely used form of research. Can be conducted locally, statewide, or nationwide. Data gathered through survey method and often entered into data analysis computer program for evaluation. Legal Research, qualitative investigative studies, trend analysis, agency evaluation, and theory development research are all other methods used in the social science for collecting data. The type of research conducted will dictate the content of the Methodology section. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED Below is a general guideline. Mold the methodology section to provide the information relevant to your study. You may want to questions your committee on what should be included. Description of the actual method used and justification. Was the study a content analysis, national level quantitative survey, ethnography, etc.? Why is this method appropriate and what does it attempt to measure? Why are you going about this study in this way? Detailed description of the sample. What are the characteristics of the population being addressed and the sample being studied (size, age, income, etc)? Qualitative studies may not require much detail about your sample. 50
51 How were the subjects chosen? 51 How representative is the sample of the population? Detailed description of all measurement instruments used to collect the data. What types of survey/test/interviews were used? Issues of reliability and validity should be addressed. Detailed description of how the measurement instrument was used for collecting and recording data. How, where, when was the data collected? What instructions were given to the subjects etc.? Limitations of the study (can be presented either in the methodology or conclusion sections). Be sure to also include a small introduction and conclusion section in order to maintain fluidity. Detail is important in your methodology section. BRIEF DISBRIPTION Report data and what the data means (less substantive than in conclusion). Lay out findings and interpret results (results can be included in conclusion) Must be logical and orderly within the framework of the hypotheses, deductions, objectives, or questions asked in conjunction with the statement of the problem. CHAPTER IV-ANALYSIS/FINDINGS Objective rather than subjective or speculative presentation Analysis consistent with and supported by the facts obtained Absence of overgeneralizations or sweeping statements that go beyond data Relationships of the findings to previously cited research explicitly shown Negative findings relative to the hypotheses as well as positive findings presented with minimal distortion or bias Uncontrolled factors influencing data outcomes appropriately cited and discussed
52 Weakness in the data honestly conceded and discussed with appropriate emphasis 52 Lack of confusion between facts and inferences clearly shown separation of analysis of findings from interpretation and discussion of findings Resolution of contradictions, inconsistencies, or misleading elements if the findings. Appropriate and clear use of charts, tables, figures, and graphs SOME KEY INGREDIENTS/CHECKLIST Findings are presented in tables or charts when appropriate Findings reported with respect to furnishing evidence for each question asked. Appropriate headings are established to correspond to each main questions or hypothesis considered. Factual information kept separate from interpretation, inference and evaluation (one section for findings and one section for interpretation or discussion) Analysis and interpretation are complete, clear, and insightful Narrative description of findings should be clear and complete Separate section often titled Discussion, Interpretation, or Evaluation and ties together findings in relation to theory, literature review, or methodology. NOTE: In certain historical, case-study and anthropological investigations, factual and interpretive material may need to be interwoven to sustain interest level, although the text should clearly reveal what the fact is and what is interpretation. CHAPTER V SUMMARY/CONCLUSION Brief s summary of everything covered in the first three chapters and in findings portion of Chapter IV (Analysis/Methods). Precise and accurate statement of (1) the problem, (2) the methodology followed, and (3) the findings without the introduction of new or irrelevant information. Conclusions at a scope and level of generality justified by the data presented.
53 So what of findings. You have to question the importance of your research. Have to have a good reason on why it matters; who is going to care? 53 Often the hypotheses restated as in inferences with some degree of definitive commitment and generalizability (Reject or accept the hypotheses). Rational for the data obtained or possible significant differences, or the fact that no significant differences were found. Conclusion should also include practical suggestions for implementation of findings and/or for additional research. Should also consider the limitations of the study. BIBLIOGRAPHY The bibliography should list all of the sources of information used for the preparation of the paper. APPENDICES The appendices should material pertinent to the study but not appropriate for inclusions in the body of the paper. HELPFUL HINTS/FURTHER READING Devote recurring time to focus on the work prior to the last semester Review other thesis written by Eastern Kentucky University graduate students, noting style and methodologies Many guides are available to assist you in this endeavor. Recommended reading includes: Writing With Style by John R. Trimble and Thesis Resource Guide For Criminology And Criminal Justice by Frank P. Williams and Marilyn D. McShane.
54 54 EASTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY Guide to the Preparation of Theses and Specialist Projects Graduate Education & Research 2008 Text adapted from Tennessee Conference of Graduate Schools: Guide to Preparation of Theses and Dissertations and Southern Illinois University Edwardsville: Guidelines for the Preparation of a Thesis TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Academic Integrity Research Compliance Thesis Involving Human Subjects Thesis Involving Animal Subjects THE ESSENTIALS Purpose of the Guide Definitions Type Face or Font Text Preliminary Pages Table Figure and Plate Appendix ELEMENTS AND STYLE Preliminary Pages Approval Sheet Statement of Permission to Use Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Page Acknowledgments Abstract Preface Table of Contents List of Tables/List of Figures/List of Plates List of Symbols/List of Abbreviations/Nomenclature Text Divisions Subdivisions References Within Text Tables, Figures and Plates General Information Tables Figures Plates... 64
55 55 Table of Contents Continued. Bibliography/List of References Appendix Vita FORMATTING Type Face and Quality Type Face or Font Spacing Other Formatting Considerations Margin Settings and Justification Pagination Paper and Duplication SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND CONSIDERATIONS Theses/Specialist projects in the Form of Journal Articles Multi-Part Theses and Specialist projects Two-Volume Theses/Specialist projects Creative Writing Theses Theses/Specialist projects Prepared in a Foreign Language TECHNICAL POINTERS Appearance Content Taped Copy Photographs CONCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS Printing the Master Copy Copying Copies Forms Additional Copies and Binding... 70
56 56 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The successful completion of a thesis is the culmination of a student s work in fulfilling the requirements for a graduate degree at Eastern Kentucky University. The process is demanding, rigorous, time-consuming, challenging, and sometimes, discouraging. It is also one of the most rewarding aspects of graduate study because it is you the graduate student, your topic, your proposal, your research, and your writing. The result is a manuscript that is printed and bound and resides in the Library as tangible and lasting evidence of your completed graduate study at EKU. Thesis guidelines are prepared by Graduate Education and Research as a resource in helping you achieve the standards expected for an academic work. In addition to reading this booklet, you will find it useful to consult with your thesis committee to determine if any particular style is preferred; e.g., Turabian, APA, MLA, etc. Some departments will require a specific style, while others will leave that decision to the discretion of the student. Whatever style is selected, familiarize yourself with its requirements, and be consistent within that style. A thesis is an academic work; as such, creative use of bold and italics and dramatic changes in point size are discouraged even though word processing packages provide some interesting temptations. Adherence to a traditional format is expected, and is especially applicable to the cover page, which is standard for every thesis. Please note that the library will not accept theses for binding that do not strictly adhere to these guidelines. The thesis writer is expected to proofread the manual for errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax, subject/verb agreement, sentence structure, and paragraphing. Remember that the spell checking function of your word processing software is more of a crutch than a tool and is not the final solution for spelling problems, particularly with regards to homonyms. Witness the following poem by Pennye Harper: I have a spelling checker; It came with my PC. It plainly marks four my revue Mistakes I cannot sea. I ve run this poem threw it; I m sure your pleased too no Its letter perfect in it s weigh; My checker told me so.
57 Academic Integrity Since conferral of a graduate degree implies personal integrity and knowledge of scholarly methods, there are three areas in which graduate students should be particularly cautious: (1) proper acknowledgment of cited works, (2) the use of copyrighted material, and (3) the proper reporting of work where research compliance is required. Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines plagiarism as "stealing or passing off ideas or words of another as one's own"; "the use of a created production without crediting the source." Any material taken from another source must be documented, and in no case should one present another person's work as one's own. Extreme caution should be exercised by students involved in collaborative research to avoid questions of plagiarism. If in doubt, students should check with the major professor and the Graduate School about the project. Plagiarism will be investigated when suspected and prosecuted if established. If copyrighted material is used in a limited way, permission to quote usually does not need to be sought. If, however, extensive material from a copyrighted work is to be used such that the rights of the copyright owner might be violated, permission of the owner must be obtained. In determining the extent of a written work that may be quoted without permission, the student should consider the proportion of the material to be quoted in relation to the substance of the entire work. According to The Chicago Manual of Style (1993), "A few lines from a sonnet, for instance, form a greater proportion of the work than do a few lines from a novel. Use of anything in its entirety is hardly ever acceptable" (p. 146, section 4.53). In no case should a standardized test or similar material be copied and included in a thesis/specialist project without written permission. According to Circular 21 (Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians, p. 11), "... the following shall be prohibited:... There shall be no copying of or from works intended to be 'consumable' in the course of study or of teaching. These include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and test booklets and answer sheets and like consumable material." The publisher usually has the authority to grant permission to quote excerpts from the copyrighted work or can refer requests to the copyright owner or designated representative. The copyright owner may charge for permission to quote. Permissions should be credited with the acknowledgments, and the source should appear in the List of References or Bibliography. Research Compliance Compliance with federal regulations governing the use of human subjects, animal care, radiation, legend drugs, recombinant DNA, or the handling of hazardous materials in research is monitored by a number of federal agencies. Because of these regulations, research compliance is another area of importance to graduate students and to the conduct of their research. Most schools require each student to verify that he or she has complied with the appropriate approval procedure(s) prior to the initiation of the thesis or specialist project-related research, if approval is relevant to the research. Graduate students doing research involving any of the areas mentioned should determine what compliance is required by the school. Thesis Involving Human Subjects All research involving human subjects must comply with federal regulations from the Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP) and the University s Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the protection of human research subjects. Proposals for research projects involving human subjects must be reviewed and approved by the IRB prior to the collection of data. Applications are available on the Sponsored Programs website at Federal regulations require mandatory training for all researchers, including students writing theses or dissertations. To satisfy this training requirement, EKU requires that all researchers participating in projects involving human subjects complete the National Institutes of Health s Human Participant Protections Education for Research Teams Tutorial and supply a copy of the certification of completion to the IRB prior to the 57
58 Thesis Involving Animal Subjects All research involving animal subjects must be reviewed by and receive approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) prior to the beginning of the research project. The IACUC application and guidelines are available on the Sponsored Programs website at For more information about IRB and IACUC requirements, contact the Division of Sponsored Programs at (859) The goal of the Graduate School, as well as the student's thesis or specialist project committee members, is to ensure that a manuscript has been produced that will reflect credit on the student, the student's committee, the department, and the Graduate School. Good luck with your thesis and remember that when it s all done the rewards will include a completed graduate degree and an immense feeling of accomplishment. CHAPTER 2 THE ESSENTIALS Purpose of this Guide This guide is designed to be a basic source of information for thesis/specialist project preparation. It establishes the technical parameters within which all students should work, such as quality of paper, number of copies to be submitted, margins, and the sequence of pages within the manuscript. Since most graduate students will publish during and after their graduate education, it is also logical to encourage the use of leading professional publications to help establish specific formatting conventions. Students are encouraged to use publications within their field--journals and textbooks--to assist them in establishing heading format, bibliographic form, use of numbers, and other conventions that are discipline oriented. The application of this theory is not simple, but it is necessary for students to understand the various elements of a manuscript and general publication formatting requirements in academic publishing. Although knowledge and use of publication formatting is essential, the regulations established by this guide always take precedence. Style handbooks such as the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, A Manual for Writers, and/or The Chicago Manual of Style should also be used as resources for basic style and grammar. In contrast, previously accepted theses and specialist projects should never be used as the final guide to style. Examples taken from other theses may be out of context, out of date, or incorrect. The existence of a particular style or usage in a previously accepted thesis does not establish a precedent for its continuation. By accepting a thesis or specialist project and awarding the degree, a university or college places its academic reputation on the line. Thus, the content of the manuscript is carefully evaluated by experts in the student's field, while format requirements are imposed to ensure an appropriate academic appearance of the manuscript. 58
59 59 Definitions Type Face or Font These terms apply to all the features available within a "type" family. For many printers, type face includes bold, italic, and the various sizes of any named type i.e. Helvetica, Times Roman, Arial, Courier, etc. Text In the discussion of formatting, text is used as a generic term to designate the main body of the thesis/ specialist project and to distinguish this element from preliminary pages (or front matter), references, tables, figures, and appendices. Preliminary Pages Sometimes called "front matter," these pages serve as a guide to the contents and nature of the manuscript (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 4, section 1.2). The approval or acceptance sheets, as part of the preliminary pages, confirm acceptance by the committee members acting for the department, and the dean of the graduate school, acting for the university or college. Table A table consists of numbers, words, or both, and presents information that is separated into columns. Tabular information allows the author to convey precise information to a reader in a structured format. Figure and Plate Any diagram, drawing, graph, chart, map, photograph, or material that does not fit into the restricted format for a table is a figure or plate. Figures generally show relationships or illustrate information rather than present precise data. Plates are a subgrouping of figures and usually consist of groups of separate photographs or drawings presented together. Appendix An appendix is generally a "catch-all" for supplementary material to the thesis/specialist project. In some cases, tables and/or figures are placed in an appendix to avoid interrupting the text.
60 60 CHAPTER 3 ELEMENTS AND STYLE Preliminary Pages Figure 1 shows the sequence and numbering scheme of the various thesis/specialist projects parts. Samples of all preliminary pages are found in the appendix. Approval Sheet Each of the two copies of the thesis/specialist project submitted to the Graduate School must have an approval sheet using the exact wording and format shown in the appendix. This sheet must be on the same brand and weight of cotton paper and be in the same base type face as the remainder of the thesis/ specialist project. The name used on the approval sheets and title page must be that under which the student is registered at the institution. Although the approval sheets may be copies, the committee signatures must be original. Black ink is recommended for the original signatures. The number of signature lines must equal the number of committee members. The major and degree to be awarded must be exactly those to which the student was admitted officially by the Graduate School. Majors and degrees can be found in the university s graduate catalog. The approval sheet is the first page of the manuscript and is not numbered, or counted in the numbering sequence. Statement of Permission to Use The Statement of Permission to Use allows the library to provide academic copies of a thesis without securing further permission from the author. Unlike specialist projects, theses are not microfilmed, so access to them is limited to that which can be provided by the library. Like the approval sheet, each of the two copies of the thesis submitted to the school must have a Statement of Permission to Use on the same brand and weight of paper and in the same base type style. This statement is in addition to optional copyrighting of the thesis. It follows the approval sheet and is not assigned a page number. Title Page The style should be followed exactly as it appears in the example on page 42. Do not use bold, italics, underline, or point size larger than standard text. Center these items in the same way they are centered on the sample page. This page is not numbered, but it is counted as page one of the preliminary pages and is assigned roman numeral "i" although the number does not appear on the page (see Figure 1 on page 11 for details of numbering and sequencing of manuscript). The date used is the month and year of commencement. The student's name must appear as he/she is registered at the institution. The wording and format must be exactly as shown in the appendix. Copyright Page This page is included only if the manuscript is being formally copyrighted, either through University Microfilms (doctoral students) or with the U.S. Government Copyright Form TX (Master's students). Dedication Page If the student wishes to dedicate the manuscript, the dedication statement is included at this point. Acknowledgments This page is to thank those who have helped in the process of obtaining the graduate degree. Permissions to quote copyrighted material are listed here, as well as acknowledgments for grants and special funding.
61 61 Abstract A thesis/specialist project submitted to the Graduate School may have an abstract. Although the content of the abstract is determined by the student and graduate committee, the following information is appropriate: (1) a short statement concerning the area of investigation, (2) a brief discussion of methods and procedures used in gathering the data, (3) a condensed summary of the findings, and (4) conclusions reached in the study. There is no word limit on the abstract appearing in the thesis or specialist project. Preface A personal statement about the thesis project would be included in a preface. The tone of a preface, however, must be academic and appropriate to a scholarly work. Table of Contents The Table of Contents may vary in style and amount of information included. Chapter or Section titles, the Bibliography or List of References, the Appendix(es), if any, and the Vita must be included. Page numbers given for the Bibliography and Appendix should be those assigned to the separation sheet preceding each of those items. Although it is not necessary to include all levels of headings, inclusion must be consistent. If a particular level is included at any point, all headings of that level must be included. No preliminary pages with Roman numerals are included in the Table of Contents; the Table of Contents entries start with page 1. The listed page numbers in the Table of Contents, as well as those given on the List of Tables and List of Figures should be right justified (see examples on pages 47-50). List of Tables/List of Figures/List of Plates If there are five or more tables or figures, a List of Tables and/or Figures must be included. Because plates are sometimes not part of the bound manuscript, a List of Plates must always be included. There must be separate lists for tables, figures and plates. Any tables or figures appearing in the appendix are also included in the appropriate list. Each title must be different from the other titles, and all titles must be entered in the lists worded exactly as they appear on the table or figure. This includes the information up to the first terminal punctuation. Additional explanatory information need not be included in the list. These pages are placed immediately after the Table of Contents in the preliminary pages. Not every thesis will require the use of tables, etc. Placement of tables, figures, or illustrations will be determined by the student and the graduate thesis committee. If they are included within text they should be placed as closely as possible to their first mention in text. Some students and their committees will elect to place them in the Appendix, especially if they are nonessential to the printed matter. Placement of tables, figures, and illustrations is not an either/or; it is permissible to use some of them within the body of the thesis and include the rest of them in Appendix. All of these elements should be referred to by number. If a table cannot be accommodated in the space remaining on a page, continue the text to make a full page and place the table at the top of the next page, continuing the text from the position at which the table ends. Each table, illustration, etc., must have a title or caption. List of Symbols/List of Abbreviations/Nomenclature The title of this material should reflect its content and may be included to define specialized terms or symbols. This information may also be placed in an appendix.
62 62 Text For the purposes of this discussion, "text" is used as a generic term to refer to the main body of the thesis/specialist project. Samples of thesis/specialist project parts may be found in the appendix. Divisions The manuscript must be divided into a logical scheme that is followed consistently throughout the work. Chapters are the most common major division, but sections and parts are also permissible. Examples of these formats are shown in Figure 2 on page 13. For a discussion of division into parts, see Chapter 5. Each chapter or section must be numbered consecutively and begin on a new page. A division entitled INTRODUCTION may be the first numbered chapter or section, or may precede the first numbered chapter or section. Chapter or section titles are primary divisions of the entire manuscript and are not part of the subdivision scheme. Each chapter should begin on a new page with two lines separating the chapter heading and the first line of text. Subdivisions Any logical system of subdivision within chapters or sections is permissible, but the scheme must be consistent throughout the manuscript. The appearance of the heading must vary for each level of subdivision unless a numbering system is used to indicate level. The subdivisions within a chapter or section do not begin on a new page unless the preceding page is filled. If there is not room for the complete heading and at least two lines of text at the bottom of a page, the new subdivision should begin on the next page. First and second level subdivisions are always preceded by extra space to indicate to the reader a major shift in subject. According to the Chicago Manual of Style (1993), "The subhead and its white space... equal two lines of text" (p. 773, section 18.28). Any levels of subdivision below the first two are not required to have extra space above but must be treated consistently. A. Division by Chapters: CHAPTER 1 GROWTH DYNAMICS OF TUMOR CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO Chapter numbers can be expressed as Roman or Arabic numerals. Note the extra spacing between chapter number, chapter title and beginning of text. This space provides a visual "roadmap" for readers, telling them that a major division has just occurred. B. Division by Sections: 1. GROWTH DYNAMICS OF TUMOR CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO Sections can be expressed either in Roman or Arabic numerals. Note the extra spacing between the section designation and text, showing readers that a major break has occurred. References within Text Notes documenting the text and corresponding to superscripted numbers in the text are called footnotes when they are printed at the bottom of the page (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 494, section 15.4). This format is only used occasionally and has generally been replaced by references. References usually consist of information in parenthesis or square brackets within the text. Two common methods of referencing are (1) to use author's name and date of publication, as in (Smith, 1990), or (2) to assign numbers to the bibliographical entries and insert the corresponding number for the authors as they are cited in the text, as in Smith (95). The purpose of references is to guide the reader to the corresponding entry in the List of References or Bibliography, where complete information is available. Footnotes or reference notes collected at the end of each chapter or section (end notes) are not acceptable. In microfilm or other electronic format, large numbers of pages are reproduced on a single sheet of film, making end notes difficult for the reader to locate. The form, style and contents of footnotes or reference notes should be determined by what is generally accepted in the field of study, using a professional journal or style manual. Most of the popular word processing applications have a footnote feature that provides automatic formatting and placement of footnotes at the bottom of the page. For disciplines using that convention, the formatting provided by the software application would be acceptable.
63 63 Tables, Figures and Plates General Information Titles. Since tables and figures are separate entities, they must be numbered independently. Each table or figure must have a unique title descriptive of its contents. This title appears at the top of the table and at the bottom of the figure. Figures containing parts must be given a general title, after which the figure may be broken down into "A" and "B" parts. For multiple-part figures, the title may be integrated, with titles for each part as part of the general figure title, or composite, with no reference to the individual parts. No two figures may have exactly the same title. The formatting of the titles must be consistent for all tables and figures. Numbering. Tables and figures may be numbered in one of several ways. Three of the most common numbering schemes are (1) to number consecutively throughout the manuscript, including the appendix, using either Roman or Arabic numerals; (2) to number consecutively within chapters or sections, with a prefix designating the chapter/section (e.g., 3-1, , 4-2). Appendix tables or figures would use a prefix of A for Appendix or a prefix designating the specific appendix (e.g., A-1, A-2 or A-1, B-1, B-2); or (3) to establish a consecutive numbering system for the body of the manuscript and a different one for the appendix (e.g., 1, 2, 3 for text and A-1, A-2, A-3 for appendix). The style of numbering must be consistent. Placement within the body of the manuscript. Each table or figure must immediately follow the page on which it is first mentioned (except as noted in the next paragraph) and all tables and figures must be referred to by number, not by expressions such as "the following table/figure." When more than one table or figure is introduced on a page of text, each follows in the order mentioned. It is recommended that tables and figures be assigned pages separate from the text to avoid problems in shifting during last-minute revisions. In degree of importance, tables and figures are secondary to the text so that the text dictates where the tables or figures are placed. All pages must be filled with text and in no case should a page be left significantly short because of the mention of a table or figure. A table or figure less than one-half page in length (approximately 4 inches) may be incorporated within the text, provided the following criteria are met: Must be in numerical order. Is separated from the text by extra space (approximately 1/2 inch). Is not continued onto a following page. Follows its specific mention in the text. It is strongly suggested that if tables and figures are integrated with text, they be placed so that they appear either at the top or the bottom of a page. A mention on the upper half of a page of text would mean that the bottom half of the page would be reserved for the table or figure, and a mention in the bottom half of the page would place the table or figure at the top of the next page. There should always be a balance of no less than one-half page of text and no more than one-half page of table or figure. If multiple tables or figures are mentioned together on a page, they may be placed on pages together, provided there is approximately 1/2 inch between each. It is not necessary to designate as figures small diagrams within the text, nor to designate as formal tables compilations which are no more than a few lines in length. Placement of tables and figures in the appendix. When all tables and/or figures are in an appendix, this fact is stated in a footnote in the body of the text attached to the first mention of a table or figure and is not repeated thereafter. When only some of the tables and figures are in an appendix, their location must be clearly indicated when the items are mentioned in the text (Table 1, Appendix A), unless the numbering scheme makes the location obvious (Table A-1). Horizontal tables and figures. To accommodate large tables or figures, it is sometimes necessary to place them in horizontal orientation on the page. The margin at the binding edge must still be 1 1/2 inches, and all other margins at least 1 inch. The margin at the top of the page and the placement of the page number must be consistent with the rest of the thesis. The table or figure and its caption will be placed so that they can be read when the thesis is turned 90 degrees clockwise. Foldout pages. Large tables and figures should be reduced to fit an 8 1/2 x 11 inch page, if possible. It not, material on approved paper larger than 8 1/2 x 11 inches may be included in the thesis, provided the page itself is 11 inches vertically and is folded properly. The fold on the right side must be at least 1/2 inch from the edge of the paper. The second fold, on the left side, if needed, must be at least 1 1/2 inches from the binding edge of the paper. The finished page, folded, should measure 8 1/2 x 11 inches. If the page is to be bound into the thesis or specialist project, the paper submitted to the graduate school must be the same brand of 100% cotton as the rest of the manuscript. Material in pockets.
64 64 If it is necessary to include a large map, drawing, CD, or any other material which cannot be bound, these materials should be itemized in a List of Plates and indicated as being "In Pocket." A label giving the plate number, title, student's name and year of graduation is affixed to the folded plate. A pocket for the plate will be attached to the inside back cover of the hard-bound copies at the bindery. It is also permissible to include less bulky material such as a survey instrument or pamphlets in a pocket attached to a sheet of approved paper with permanent cement. This material must be treated as a figure, mentioned in the text, and given a number and caption. Caution should be observed in using pockets since the material in them is easily lost. Tables Type face. Since tables are typeset rather than photographed or copied from artwork (Publication Manual of the APA, p. 94), the base type face used for the manuscript must be used for tables. The size of the type may differ, depending on the "fit" of the information within the margins. Because of the type requirements for tables, it is seldom possible to use a table from another source "as is." Required components. Since tables consist of tabulated material or columns, the use of ruling or lines in tables helps the reader distinguish the various parts of the table. One of the characteristics that identifies tabulated material as a table is the presence of at least the following three lines: 1. The table opening line, which appears after the table title and before the columnar headings. 2. The columnar heading closing line, which closes off the headings from the main body of the table. 3. The table closing line, signaling that the data are complete. Anything appearing below the closing line is footnote material. (See Figure 3.) Vertical lines are accepted but not required. Tables must have at least two columns which carry headings at the top--brief indications of the material in the columns (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 413, section 12.26). The headings appearing between the table opening line and the column heading closing line must apply to the entire column down to the table closing line. This is especially important in tables that continue onto additional pages. It is never appropriate to change columnar headings on continued pages. One method of avoiding a problem is to use cut-in-heads, which are headings that appear below the column heading closing line, cut across the columns of the table, and apply to all the tabular matter lying below it (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 414, section 12.30) (see example in Figure 3). Continued tables. Tables may be continued on as many pages as necessary, provided the columnar headings within the columnar block remain the same. The columnar block is repeated for each page. The table title is not repeated, but continuation pages are indicated with the designation: Table (continued). Tables too large to fit within margins may be reduced (see Chapter 7 for hints on technical production). Table footnotes. Footnotes to tables consist of four different categories: (1) source notes, (2) general notes, (3) notes to specific parts of the table indicated by superscripts, and (4) notes on level of probability (Turabian, p. 101). If the table or data within the table are taken from another source, the word Source(s): is used, followed by the full reference citation, regardless of the format for referencing used in the main body of the text. This ensures that if that specific page is copied in the future by an interested reader, all bibliographic information is contained within the page. All references must be included in the List of References or Bibliography. General notes are introduced as Note(s): and may include remarks that refer to the table as a whole. Notes to specific parts of the table use superscripts (letters for tables consisting of numbers; numerals for tables consisting of words; symbols if letters or numbers might be mistaken for exponents) that are attached to the part of the table to which they apply. If a table contains values for which levels of probability are given, asterisks are used by convention. A single asterisk is used for the lowest level of probability, two for the next higher, etc. (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 419, section 12.50).
65 65 Figures Type face. Since figures are considered illustrations, regardless of the nature of their content, any print that is part of the figure can be in any type face, provided it is neat and legible. The figure title (or caption) and page number must be in the same base type face as the rest of the manuscript because this material is considered to be part of the typeset body of the manuscript (see Chapter 7). Legends. Explanatory material for figures may be placed within the figure, either above or below the title, or continued after the period following the title. If a figure has a long legend which must be placed on a separate sheet because of the size of the figure, this page must be placed immediately before the figure. The page number assigned to the legend page is considered to be the first page of the figure. The figure title would appear on the legend page, together with the legend information. Legend pages are used only as needed. Continued figures. A figure containing several related parts too large to be included on a page may be continued onto other pages. The first page contains the figure number and complete title, and subsequent pages contain the remainder of the figure and the designation: Figure (continued). Figure footnotes. Footnotes are placed below the figure title but are not separated by a dividing line. If the figure or information within the figure is taken from another source, the word Source(s): is used, followed by the full reference citation, regardless of the format for referencing used in the main body of the text. This ensures that if that specific page is copied in the future by an interested reader, all bibliographic information is contained within the page. If changes are made in a figure from another source, this is indicated by using the phrase "Adapted from...." General notes are introduced as Note (s): and may include remarks that refer to the figure as a whole. All references must be included in the Bibliography or List of References. Plates Plates are a special category consisting of pages of related figures, multiple photographs or material that cannot be bound into the manuscript in the normal binding process. Following are the most frequently used methods of including plates: Printed as full-page 8 1/2 x 11 inch photographs on double-weight glossy paper (with a maximum image area of 6 x 9 inches) preceded by a legend page (see Figures). Affixed to the required paper with a permanent spray mount adhesive. Copied on archival-quality paper (not necessarily the required paper) to be placed in a pocket attached to the inside back cover of the manuscript at the bindery. Plates must be mentioned in the text by number. The plate pages then follow the first mention. Since plates may be composed of multiple figures or parts, all parts of each plate may be discussed in any manner the writer desires without further referencing once the plate is mentioned. Bibliography/List of References A thesis/specialist project must include a list of materials used in the preparation of the manuscript. This may consist only of references cited in the text (List of References) or it may include works consulted as well (Bibliography). The purpose of listing the citations is threefold: (1) to serve as an acknowledgment of sources, (2) to give readers sufficient information to locate the volume, and (3) in the case of personal interviews or correspondence, to save readers the trouble of attempting to locate material that is not available. Ordinarily, citations are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the author. Runover lines in a bibliography can be handled in one of two ways: Either indent the author s name five spaces and place the runover line(s) flush left or Place the author s name flush left and indent the runover lines five spaces. The format for the citations should be that used in the field of study.
66 66 Appendix An appendix (appendixes or appendices), if included, is preceded by a numbered page with the designation centered vertically and horizontally between the margins. Original data and supplementary materials are usually placed in the appendix. In some cases, all tables, figures and/or plates are moved to the appendix to avoid interrupting text. Each different element of the supplemental material (e.g. each set of tables, charts, etc.) is sectioned into separate appendices each preceded by a numbered designation page (see sample). Vita The vita is written in narrative form and contains appropriate personal, academic and professional information about the author. Since copies of the manuscript will be available to the public, private information should not be included. It is the last item in the manuscript and appears with no preceding separation page. CHAPTER 4 FORMATTING Type Face and Quality Type Face or Font While font style is an individual decision, it is important that the manuscript is professional looking and readable. Use of a 10- to 12-point font size and a font style that is clear and projects an appropriate academic image is recommended. Suggestions include Courier, Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman. Type face affects the physical appearance of a manuscript more than any other single element. Figure 4 shows a sample page using various point sizes and special effects. The use of bold and/or italic fonts is permitted (except on the cover page and for major headings). Second or third level headings are more easily seen with bold, for example. Frequently, a thesis will contain a section of definitions, which are more distinctive when seen in bold or italics. Substituting either bold or italics for underline also generates a sharper contrast between words being defined and second level headings that also use underline. It is important to establish styles or conventions that will be followed consistently throughout the manuscript. If the decision is made to set all single-spaced quotes in italics or in a smaller type than that used for the regular text, that convention should be followed for all single-spaced quotes. Chapter 2 Materials and Methods Introduction Ten major steps were involved in finding RFLPs among Cornus genotypes. These steps are shown in Figure 2.1. Plant Material Cornus tissue (newly emerging succulent leaves, older fully expanded leaves, floral bract tissue and floral buds) was collected from different species and from different cultivars of C. florida from several locations. The primary Cornus genotypes used in this study were C. mas, C. amomum, C. sericea, C. kousa and the C. florida cultivars 'Barton', 'Cherokee Princess', 'Cloud Nine', 'Mary Ellen'. During the course of this study DNA was extracted from several other Cornus genotypes but due to time constraints RFLP experiments were not carried out on these additional plants. All tissue was collected within a 100 mile radius of Knoxville, Tennessee (see Table 2.1) and tissue from all trees (with the exception of two C. kousa trees) was collected from trees growing outside. Plant tissue was collected throughout the spring and summer and into early fall at different times during the day and night. To reduce the destructive activity of nucleases on the DNA, the tissue was usually immersed in liquid nitrogen as soon as it was obtained and kept in a frozen state until processed. For solutions used see Table 2.2.
67 67 Spacing Spacing has both aesthetic and utilitarian effects on the appearance of a page. Most word processing packages allow the user to set the "spacing" for vertical measurement, using the predetermined line height as a basis. Single spacing leaves a small space between two lines of type and double spacing leaves the equivalent of the height of a line between the two lines of type. Newer software will also permit line spacing of 1.15 and 1.5 lines. For readability when printed, the general text should be at least 1.5 spaces and at most be double-spaced. Single or 1.15 spacing is permissible to set off quoted material and for references and tables. Students are encouraged to use the conventions within their field and to be consistent in their application. In the event that extra space is needed (e.g., above headings, between chapter number and title), an additional "enter" is added, doubling the white space. The decision whether to indent each paragraph or leave flush is optional, but indentations should be uniform throughout the thesis/specialist project. Additionally, it is no longer necessary to place two spaces after each period in a paragraph. Most word processing software today automatically place extra space between sentences. Widows/Orphans Widows/orphans are single lines/words of text separated from paragraphs. If possible, widows/orphans should be avoided. Be advised that they will not be accepted when they interfere with the flow of the text. Other Formatting Considerations Margin Settings and Justification Thesis/specialist project margins cannot be violated. The left margin must be no less than 1 1/2 inches; the right, top and bottom margins no less than 1 inch. All images must fit within these margins, including the page number. These margins define the minimum white space to be maintained on all sides. All margins must be left justified (or ragged-right). Left justified margins are the only margins acceptable and must be consistent throughout the manuscript. Pagination Figure 1 on page 11 shows the order and pagination of the various parts of a thesis/specialist project. The approval sheet and Permission to Use page are not numbered and are not assigned a number. The preliminary pages begin with the title page and are assigned lowercase Roman numerals. Although the preliminary paging begins with the title page, no number appears on that page; therefore, the first numbered page is page ii. Beginning with the first page of the text, all pages should be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript, including the Bibliography or List of References, Appendix, and Vita, with Arabic numerals. Pagination using letter suffixes (i.e., 10a and 10b) is not allowed. The number may be positioned at the bottom of the page centered between the margins, or in the lower right hand corner, but must be consistent throughout the document. Numbers may appear on separation sheets (Bibliography or List of References and Appendix), or be suppressed, provided the pages are assigned numbers. Paper and Duplication The two final copies of the thesis/specialist project submitted to the Graduate School must be printed on 100 percent cotton content, 20- to 24-pound weight, white paper. The same brand of paper must be used throughout both copies and for the approval pages. The copies are made from a master copy produced by a letter-quality printer on plain white paper. The initial copy submitted for formatting checks should be on ordinary-grade printer paper, but must be fully formatted and organized as a final draft.
68 68 CHAPTER 5 SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND CONSIDERATIONS The guidelines given in the previous chapters are sufficient for most theses/specialist projects. However, there are several circumstances that require additional guidance. This chapter addresses a few of the more specific questions that may exist in thesis/specialist project preparation, such as the use of papers that have been or will be submitted to journals, the division of unusually long manuscripts, and requirements pertaining to creative writing and foreign languages. Theses/Specialist projects in the Form of Journal Articles A thesis or specialist project may include articles submitted or about to be submitted to professional journals. Projects done this way, however, must meet specific guidelines. The individual papers must be integrated into a unified presentation, which may be done through an introductory chapter which might contain, among other things, a detailed literature review of the type not presented in journal articles. Additionally, one or more connecting chapters might be used to expand upon the methodology or the theoretical implications of the findings presented in the individual articles. A uniform style of headings, reference citations, and bibliographical format in compliance with this guide must be adopted for the thesis/specialist project, even though the individual papers may have been prepared for submission to different journals. Each paper may be listed as an individual chapter within the thesis/ specialist project or may be treated as a part and follow the Multi-part format discussed in the next section. If chapter divisions are used, one Bibliography or List of References, including all references from the various articles, is presented at the end of the text. Finally, appendices may be added to present information not included in the chapters. Pages must be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript. Multi-Part Theses and Specialist projects With approval of the committee members, a thesis/specialist project may be divided into parts, rather than sections or chapters. The use of parts is an effective method of organization when research has been performed in two or more areas not practical to be combined into a single presentation or to assist in maintaining consistent format for journal articles. Each part may be treated as a separate unit, with its own chapters, figures, tables, Bibliography or List of References, and Appendix (if needed), or the Bibliography or List of References and Appendix may be combined at the end as in the case of theses/specialist projects in the form of journal articles (see previous section). In all cases, the thesis/specialist project must include an introduction which provides an overview and summary of the project, a single Table of Contents, List of Tables and List of Figures. Consecutive pagination should be used throughout the manuscript, including numbering of the required separation sheets listing the part number and title placed before each part. Two-Volume Theses/Specialist projects If a manuscript is more than 2 1/2 inches in thickness (approximately 500 sheets of 20- pound 100% cotton paper), it must be divided as equally as possible into two volumes not exceeding 2 1/2 inches each. The division must come between chapters or major divisions, such as Bibliography or Appendices. The Table of Contents at the beginning of Volume 1 will list the contents for the entire manuscript. Pagination is continuous throughout both volumes. A sheet with VOLUME 1 centered both horizontally and vertically between margins is inserted just prior to Chapter 1. Volume 2 opens with a title page followed by a sheet showing VOLUME 2. Neither volume separation sheet is assigned a number.
69 69 Creative Writing Theses All theses, including those in creative writing, are expected to conform to the basic rules of margins, paper and copy quality, and must be blended into a unified presentation that fulfills the requirement that the thesis should reflect credit on the student, the student's committee and the university. The following elements are required for the acceptance of a thesis in Creative Writing: Approval sheet Title page Abstract Table of Contents Introduction, which sets the academic tone for the body of the manuscript, and provides a rationale for the acceptance of the creative work as a thesis. Theses/Specialist projects Prepared in a Foreign Language All theses or specialist projects must be written in English. CHAPTER 6 TECHNICAL POINTERS Computer use has enabled students to assume responsibility for all aspects of thesis/specialist project preparation, allowing them to function as author, editor and publisher of their manuscripts. With this freedom has come the responsibility of ensuring that the content is accurate, grammar and mechanics are acceptable, and all elements of formatting are handled correctly. The purpose of this chapter is to provide some pointers on technical production and to address some common production problems. Appearance The element that contributes most to the attractiveness of a manuscript is consistency. Consistency in formatting means that the writer establishes and adheres to a series of conventions or protocols regarding spacing, heading sequencing, and other aspects of appearance to guide readers through the manuscript visually, thus enabling them to concentrate on the content. Consistency in thesis/specialist project production is especially critical, since it determines, in part, the committee reaction to content and ultimately, acceptance of the manuscript by the Graduate School. Content Taped Copy Students often waste valuable time attempting to force the computer to solve a problem when quicker and easier solutions exist. If everything to be included in a thesis or specialist project is not on disk, alternative methods must be used to transfer the image to a "working copy," such as taping the material to the page. Examples include material from other sources, photographs, tables or other material too large for a standard page. In addition, some word processing software packages are limited in their capability to take care of finer points, and some computer users have limited skills in making the computer do what they need to have done. Below are guidelines to help in taping material--an alternative method of dealing with non-computerized material: Step 1. Tape-up sheets should be prepared for any material that must be repositioned or reduced. Tape-up sheets will have the page number, title, and source (if needed) printed in proper position in preparation for the material to be taped into place. For pages that need only the number, tape-up pages can be created as part of the body of the manuscript. All software packages have a means of terminating a page at a specific point and advancing to a new page (usually termed a Page Break ). Repeating this will create an empty page, numbered in sequence with the rest of the manuscript. Step 2. For reductions, the maximum size of the image area, including page number, is 6 by 9 inches. Black and white contrast must be good. Position of the image on the reduced page is unimportant, since the image will be cut out and placed on the tape-up page.
70 70 Step 3. Non-image area should be trimmed away so that the image can be taped into place on the tape-up sheet, using transparent (not cellophane) tape. All four sides of the image should be fully taped to screen out shadow lines. This will become the master copy. Photographs There are at least six methods for including photographs in a thesis or specialist project, each differing in quality and cost and requiring different handling. 1. With the high-quality reproduction capability of the newer copiers, some of which have an automatic screening mode for photographs, it is often possible to mount an original on a tape-up sheet and have it copied onto cotton paper without any charge other than the normal copying fee. 2. Individual photographic prints can be mounted in each copy using a permanent photomount spray adhesive. If this option is selected, the tape-up sheets should be prepared and one copy of the photographs trimmed approximately 1/8 inch smaller than the other prints. The trimmed photographs should be taped on all four sides onto the tape-up sheet and the page inserted into the master copy. Each time the master copy is copied, the photographs are also copied. Cost depends on the number of negatives and copies purchased. Quality depends on the quality of the original photograph. 3. Many students with darkroom access use full-page-size 8 1/2 x 11 inch photographic paper with an image area of 6 x 9 inches (standard margins). Double weight glossy paper is recommended for preservation and crisp image. If this option is selected, the title and other information are printed on a legend page, which precedes the actual photograph, and an address label is mounted on the back of the photograph, 1 inch down and 1 inch in from the right edge (with the photograph facing downward). The label is typed as follows: Both the legend page and the photographic page are given page numbers, and in the List of Figures the number shown is that of the legend page. There is no printing on the front of the photograph. The cost of this process depends on whether the darkroom work is done by the student or by a professional agency. The paper may have to be ordered in advance. Often 11 by 14 inch sheets are bought, then cut down to 8 1/2 by 11 inches. The detail quality is excellent. 4. Halftone prints are made of each photograph and mounted onto paste-up pages. The PMT (photo-mechanical transfer) process screens the halftone image and converts it into dots, which can then be copied. Generally a dot density of 85 lines per inch gives the best image on most copiers. The quality of reproduction is comparable to that of a newspaper and probably would not be satisfactory for scientific applications. The cost is relatively low, since as many photographs as will fit on a sheet of PMT material can be made in one shot. 5. Many students use scanners to reproduce photographs, making them part of the computer-contained manuscript. Essentially, the scanner performs the same function as the PMT process and converts the photograph to dots, which are printed as graphics. Fine detail may be lost, but the overall image is attractive and copies well. 6. Offset printing is a final option. The process is done by full-service print shops and requires the processing of two negatives--one for the printed copy and one for the halftone photograph. These are then combined, spots opaqued, burned onto a printing plate and printed on the offset press. Done well, this process produces excellent quality in a form that will last as long as the paper on which it is printed. The expense, however, may limit its use in thesis/ specialist project production.
71 71 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS Printing the Master Copy The two final copies of the thesis/specialist project can be generated from a high quality laser printer or photocopied onto 100 percent cotton content, 20- to 24-pound paper from a master copy. Regardless of the method of printing, the two final copies should be smooth, high contrast copies, free from smearing and flaking. Copying There are generally area copy shops familiar with university requirements concerning paper and copy quality. The cost of having copies done by local shops is such that little money can be saved by students buying their paper and doing their own copying. Professional shops are responsible for equipment malfunctions and maintain a supply of the cotton content paper and boxes for submission. All brands of 20-pound, 100 percent cotton paper are acceptable, but all pages, including the approval sheets and any outsize pages (11 x 17), must be on the same brand as all other pages. Out-of-town students may wish to investigate sources in their location for comparison with area copy shops. Often local shops will make arrangements to accept the master copy by mail, make the copies, and deliver them to the Graduate School for a fee. Submission Copies Two copies of the thesis/specialist project on required paper in an 8 1/2 x 11" letterhead box, accompanied by the required forms and signatures, must be submitted and accepted by the Graduate School by the published date. These two official copies will be hard-bound and placed in the Library under arrangements made by the Graduate School. Forms Master's and specialist students may wish to copyright their thesis or dissertation. The Chicago Manual of Style (1993) offers an excellent discussion of copyright law and its implications. "Copyright law exists to protect the exclusive right of the copyright holder to copy the work... [although] the law has long been interpreted as allowing others to copy brief portions of the work for certain purposes" (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 126, section 4.4). Doctoral candidates may complete the copyright section on the Microfilm Agreement Form and submit a cashier's check or postal money order in the amount specified on the form. University Microfilms will handle the copyright procedures. Master's degree candidates may obtain a copy of Form TX from the Thesis/Dissertation Consultant or other appropriate individual and follow instructions on the form for registration of the copyright. If a thesis/specialist project is to be copyrighted, a page must be inserted immediately after the title page and assigned number ii. The following information must appear centered on the copyright page: Copyright 20 (year) by (name) All rights reserved Additional Copies and Binding All other copies of the thesis/specialist project, including any required by the department and/or major professor, are produced and bound through arrangements made personally by the student. The major professor or departmental secretary can help determine who expects to receive copies and how they should be bound. The EKU Library can provide information on binding services.
72 72 Graduate Assistantship Handbook Guidelines Graduate Assistant assignments must be clearly related to their program of study. Graduate assistants may be used in support of research or instruction. Graduate assistants are not to be used for clerical or other general administrative duties. Graduate assistants must meet the following eligibility criteria: 1) They must be either clearly or provisionally admitted to a master s or specialist degree program 2) They must be enrolled, and maintain enrollment, in a minimum of 9 and a maximum of 12 hours of graduate credit (a student may be registered for 6 hours in summer or during their final term prior to graduation) 3) They must meet the minimum GPA requirement of 3.0 These criteria should be verified by the program prior to submitting the GA Nomination to the Graduate School. If a student does not meet these criteria, their nomination will not be approved. This is a situation that has led to misunderstandings when a GA has assumed that their assistantship has been processed, but then does not receive a paycheck. If a Nomination is received for a student not meeting the above criteria, the department will be notified. Additional Hours Graduate assistants should not be employed elsewhere within the University. In cases where there are specific needs, graduate assistants may be employed for up to an additional 7.5 hours per week above their assistantship. The additional 7.5-hour limit is for ALL assignments, including part-time instruction. Requests for additional employment must be approved in advance by the Graduate Dean by filling out a Request for Additional Employment form found on the Grad School website. Increased Stipends Beginning Fall 2009, Graduate Assistantship Stipends were increased to $5,425 per semester. This means EKU now has the highest GA stipend in the state. Part of the requirements for being a GA is that the position must strictly pertain to the student s educational program and the Graduate School will be persistently enforcing this rule. Summer GA The Graduate School does not fund GA positions in the summer. Any department who wishes to hire GA for the summer semesters must pay for them out of the department s account. A department may have as many GA as it wants as long as it is paying for them. A typical fall/spring semester is about 16 weeks. This works out to roughly $ per week based on the $5425 per semester stipend. For the shorter summer semester, a fair stipend is $ for the entire semester ( x 10 weeks). This is the minimum amount a student should be paid for working the entire summer semester. A department may pay the student up to $1000 more than that. Stipends exceeding this amount will be considered on a case-by-case basis. The College of Justice and Safety generally pays graduate assistants $3600 for the summer. GA Termination If at any time during the semester the student s GPA falls below the mandatory 3.0, the student is no longer enrolled in 9-12 hours, the department does not feel the student is fulfilling his/her duties, or the student chooses to discontinue his/her appointment, the contract must be terminated. If either a student or a department chooses to cancel a contract, the Graduate School must be promptly notified. Students in their final semester: If a student is in his/her last semester and only has 3-6 credit hours left to graduate, but still plan on working as a GA, the hiring department must contact the Graduate School. Any students not registered 9-12 hours will not be approved for a GA. Without notification, the Graduate School will not know that the reason the student is registered for fewer than the required hours is because they are in their last semester. Please send a notice to if the student being nominated is in his/her last semester and will be registered for fewer than the required number of credit hours.
73 73 Graduate Assistantship Handbook Continued. Assistantship Application Steps 1. Graduate Assistantship positions are at the discretion of the college departments. Students searching for an assistantship should contact their advisors and their departments for information on available positions. Departments can also post available positions on EKU s employment website. 2. Students can search the postings by going to the Employment homepage and clicking on Job Seekers. They can then apply directly to the position via the website. 3. Once a department chooses to hire a student for an Assistantship, the department hiring manager will fill out an electronic Nomination form for that student. 4. The nomination must be approved by the authorizing parties and the Graduate School, then be processed by Human Resources and added to payroll. At any point in the process the student can have his or her hiring manager check the status of their nomination by logging into the Grad School s website. 5. Once the student has been approved, the Graduate School will generate and send to the student a contract stipulating the terms of their Assistantship.
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