John Buchanan s Philadelphia Diploma Mill and the Rise of State

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "John Buchanan s Philadelphia Diploma Mill and the Rise of State"

Transcription

1 John Buchanan s Philadelphia Diploma Mill and the Rise of State Medical Boards DAVID ALAN JOHNSON SUMMARY: The absence of medical licensing laws in most states during the years following the American Civil War made it possible for unscrupulous individuals to capitalize upon the weak governmental role in medical practice and educational charters. The practices of John Buchanan during much of his tenure at the Eclectic Medical College of Pennsylvania, in issuing thousands of dubiously earned diplomas, caused a national and international scandal. The traffic in diplomas became so flagrant that regulatory oversight of physicians and their practice, such as that conducted by the Illinois Board of Health led by Dr. John Rauch, developed rapidly across the United States. Though multiple factors prompted the rebirth of medical licensing laws, professional, educational, journalistic, and public concerns for bogus diplomas played an important role. KEYWORDS: John Buchanan, diploma mill, Eclectic Medical College of Philadelphia, medical licensing, John Rauch, Illinois Board of Health 1

2 In the early hours of August 17, 1880, the Philadelphia Camden ferry launched for another run across the Delaware River. The night was mild after a pleasant day topping out just below eighty degrees. 1 The boat carried only a handful of people at one o clock that morning, but among them was a short, heavyset man standing near the rail named John Buchanan dean of the Eclectic Medical College (EMC) of Pennsylvania and the architect behind the country s most notorious diploma mill. The prior week had been emotionally and financially draining for Buchanan. A federal grand jury indicted Buchanan for mail fraud, forcing him to use his home as security to obtain funds for his fifteen-thousand-dollar bail. While arrest and indictment would understandably weigh heavily upon any man, for Dr. John Buchanan this hardly represented a new experience. Authorities arrested him four times between 1872 and 1876 for medical malpractice, printing obscene circulars, and obtaining money under false pretenses. 2 Two of the arrests stemmed directly from his apparently thriving business in medical diplomas. A combination of good fortune, connections and perhaps connivance by those who should have moved these cases forward had saved Buchanan in each instance. Indeed, none of the cases ever came to trial but were quietly dropped. As he stood near the railing observing the dark waters below, Buchanan surely sensed this time was different. The luck, pluck, and criminal guile used to elude state and local authorities had proven inadequate this time. The federal charges culminated a long spring and summer of exposé reporting and heightened scrutiny drawing attention from a variety of quarters: state and federal officials, medical journals, the 2

3 daily press, and even the humor magazine Puck (Figure 1). The latter s cartoonists satirized several Philadelphia schools including EMC as physician factor[ies] manufacturing quacks to prey upon the community. The Puck cartoon appeared in April, one month after Philadelphia Record city editor John Norris secured key evidence leading to Buchanan s arrest and indictment after he used the U.S. Postal Service to purchase eight bogus diplomas from Buchanan. 3 (Figure 1.) That same spring, various journals and newspapers published a letter from the American ambassador in Germany, Andrew White, to the U.S. secretary of the interior detailing German authorities frustration with the dubious diplomas originating from America and now being presented as bona fide credentials in their country. 4 As a reform-minded educator and the driving force behind the establishment of Cornell University, White s undergraduate experiences in European institutions in the 1850s made him an advocate for more modern scientific educational methods. 5 The antiquated pedagogy of many American institutions of higher learning had long irritated White; but the Philadelphia-based trade in dubiously issued diplomas was a disgrace marring the image of American education abroad. Prominent among this trade were the diplomas signed by John Buchanan, M.D. White s letter included his own experiences in Berlin where he personally examined these sham diplomas, now so common as to have entered German popular culture as devices for comic and melodramatic effect in plays and novels. 6 The American ambassador failed to share the amusement of German audiences for this literary conceit featuring America as the refuge of frauds and scoundrels. Facing arraignment the 3

4 next day, an increasingly despondent Buchanan clambered over the boat railing, uttered an audible Good-bye, and jumped. The outgoing tide and the dark waters quickly did their work, drawing Buchanan to his death and bringing an end to a sad, sordid tale. 7 Or was it? Within twenty-four hours, the citizens of Philadelphia would be reading another twist in a story murkier than the waters of the Delaware. The extent to which Dr. John Buchanan s Philadelphia-based diploma mill has been forgotten is surprising given that it was one of the most unique episodes impacting America s post Civil War medical education, licensing, and physician communities. Over the course of approximately fifteen years, thousands of questionably-issued diplomas originated from Buchanan and the EMC with the fallout from this practice reverberating through all three communities. For those physicians trained in the eclectic philosophy of medicine, Buchanan and EMC presented an acute embarrassment hindering their efforts to secure greater professional respect and making an easy target for their critics within the regular or orthodox medical community. For the progressive elements in the medical education community interested in admission standards and curricular reform, EMC was a case-in-point example of the flaws potentially inherent to proprietary and non-university-affiliated medical schools, institutions that routinely lacked sufficient funding to evolve their commercial business model. For the nascent state medical board community arising in the 1870s, Buchanan and EMC offered a compelling example justifying the need for state-based medical regulation as the best long-term mechanism for closing the doors of such institutions. To fully appreciate the impact of John Buchanan, it is 4

5 necessary to pick up the story a decade earlier when he was near the height of his career and influence. The year 1870 opened in promising fashion with Buchanan as an EMC faculty member soon to assume the position of dean, replacing Joseph Sites one of the school s founders twenty years earlier. In January, the school hosted a meeting of the Eclectic Medical Society of Pennsylvania at the EMC s 514 Pine Street location. Buchanan was in the midst of a long run as secretary for the society dating back to He was also enjoying his second year as editor for the Eclectic Medical Journal of Pennsylvania; and his pen flowed so freely that, in addition to editing, Buchanan found the time to author multiple works on medicine and surgery. In fact, four of his Text Books were required materials for the school s students a curricular feature nicely supplementing his income (Figure 2). 9 Buchanan s interests extended beyond medicine to include local politics as well. He served as an election watcher for the Republicans in the Twenty-Sixth Ward in 1870 one year after his unsuccessful race for the Philadelphia city council s Fifth Ward. 10 Undeterred by defeat, Buchanan launched an unsuccessful bid in 1871 for Fourth District representative to the state legislature. Running as an Independent Republican, Buchanan courted African American voters in the city s Seventh and Twenty-Sixth Wards who were expected to vote in large numbers following the recent adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment asserting that the right to vote could not be denied or abridged based upon race or color. Buchanan s pamphlet, To My Colored Brothers of the Fourth Legislature District, cataloged their grievances at the hands of an ungrateful incumbent and Republican Party. 11 5

6 (Figure 2.) The school itself seemed favorably situated to outward appearances. Originally chartered in 1850 by Thomas Cooke, Henry Hollemback, and Sites, the school gathered a strong faculty in the 1850s with the additions of William Paine (Berkshire Medical Institute), James McClintock (Jefferson Medical College), John Fondey (University of Pennsylvania), and Marshal Calkins (Worcester). 12 All of these men appear to have been well respected within the eclectic community of physicians. For many years the school was situated at Sixth and Callowhill, before moving to Pine Street in A description of the facilities cited its expansive rooms, splendid laboratory, and space to accommodate three hundred students. 13 It had not always been smooth sailing. The EMC survived a rancorous split among its faculty in A splinter group (led by Paine and McClintock) withdrew and secured the charter of a school moribund since 1853 the American College of Medicine in Pennsylvania. In reactivating this school near Race and Fourth Streets, Paine opted to rename it by appending and Eclectic Medical College of Philadelphia to its original name, signaling an intent to contest which eclectic medical college would survive. Paine later relinquished the fight by renaming the school in 1875 (Philadelphia University of Medicine and Surgery), dropping the eclectic title entirely. 14 Later, critics would point to this split, the subsequent name changes, and myriad school charters floating about Pennsylvania as the beginning of the period when the issuance of diplomas became suspect. 6

7 At the same time, the post Civil War era represented a period of strength in American eclectic medicine. Despite the ignominy of the diploma scandal that unfolded in Philadelphia, nine eclectic schools operated in a half dozen states in the mid-1870s. 15 Like homeopathy and Thomsonianism, eclectic medicine took firm hold in America during the second quarter of the nineteenth century. All three represented alternative philosophies of medicine that rejected conventional or regular medicine, which relied heavily upon the use of caustic, purgative, and blood-letting treatments as well as potentially toxic chemicals and minerals. Eclectic medicine traced its lineage to physicians like Wooster Beach, Thomas Vaughn Morrow, John Milton Scudder, and others who blended a largely botanic approach to medicine with the pragmatic creed Prove all things and hold fast [to] that which is good. 16 The eclectics rejection of metaphysical concepts of disease in favor of an empirical experience complemented their willingness to draw upon the best features of medicine regardless of its origin. Beach and other eclectics viewed themselves as practitioners of a reformed or American system medicine. (The term eclectic did not adhere to the movement until the 1840s.) 17 In the mid-nineteenth century, a limited scientific understanding and therapeutic basis for the practice of medicine created an environment in which theoretical systems predominated because the effectiveness of none could be proved conclusively. These various approaches to medicine (e.g., allopathic, homeopathic, eclectic) expended enormous energy in drawing distinctions between themselves while inculcating a rigidity among their respective followers. Those in the majority (i.e., allopathic physicians) commonly labeled other groups as medical sectarians, irregulars, or 7

8 worse: quacks and charlatans. 18 Eclectics detested the irregular label and were not above responding with vituperation of their own. They characterized allopathic physicians as a base pack of yelping hounds eager to bleed and blister patients for every trifling illness. 19 Their strongest response was promoting their own brand of medicine featuring milder, usually botanically based treatments, an aversion to bloodletting and a willingness to accept women into the medical schools they established practices that found a receptive audience among in the southern and western regions. 20 Just as eclecticism flourished in the post Civil War years, so too did EMC, which gave the appearance of a successful venture through its publications. The school conferred medical degrees upon eighty-six individuals in June 1869, a figure more than double the thirty-six graduates reported two years earlier in the school s Eclectic Medical Journal of Pennsylvania. Buchanan claimed there were a thousand graduates of the school dispersed throughout Philadelphia and the country. Whether this was accurate or not, there was nothing especially suspicious about these figures given the numbers reported at other eclectic and Philadelphia medical schools. During the period from 1855 to 1868, the mother school of eclectic medicine the Eclectic Medical Institute of Ohio averaged fifty-five graduates annually. Philadelphia medical schools ranged from Hahnemann Medical College s 21 graduates to the much larger graduating classes at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Department and Jefferson Medical College with 140 and 171 annual graduates, respectively. 21 8

9 The EMC facilities included a newly established chemical laboratory and a museum whose varied and splendid collection included anatomical specimens (natural and modeled), osteological and obstetrical specimens, materia medica, and other medical training aids. 22 The presence of an anatomical museum carried significance in nineteenth-century American medical education. Such facilities were viewed as invaluable learning tools for students, providing them with access to anatomical and pathological specimens worthy of study by prospective physicians. Just as important, these museums symbolized an institution s commitment to scientific medicine and not merely experiential and empirically based practice. 23 Despite the promising outlook for Buchanan and the school, the first hints of an emerging regulatory movement were appearing a movement that would limit who could practice medicine and look closely at the schools graduating physicians. In his capacity as Journal editor, Buchanan had spied this augur of change but cited it almost in passing. A special notice in the March 1869 issue of the Journal commented on states passing laws to require a diploma from a medical school in order to practice medicine. Buchanan blithely used this as a marketing opportunity, encouraging readers lacking the credential to qualify for practice by obtaining a medical degree. 24 The upshot was clear an EMC medical degree would render such bothersome legislation irrelevant. In addressing this topic, what he had noted were the early signals of post Civil War medical licensing laws in the United States. Buchanan may not have grasped fully the implications of this movement; he would, however, soon feel their impact. 9

10 Licensing laws in America specifically, attempts to regulate the practice of medicine by limiting entry into the profession to individuals deemed knowledgeable through education or training date to the colonial era. 25 These laws reflected a pragmatic approach to medical regulation predicated upon local control, often haphazardly applied, and usually administered by physician peers organized into local medical societies. For many reasons, these laws collapsed or were repealed in most states beginning with Illinois in Scholars have speculated on various factors in the demise of licensing laws: popular embrace of alternative approaches (e.g., botanic) to medicine, a rejection of traditional medicine for its therapeutic failures, the proliferation of medical schools and subsequent denigration of the medical degree, the Jacksonian Era milieu rejecting the perceived privileges and power of sociopolitical elites. 27 Regardless of the reasons for the demise of state licensing laws, when Buchanan secured his medical degree and later rose to prominence at the EMC in the 1860s, physicians and medical educators in America enjoyed a free hand unfettered by governmental restraints in the form of licensing and school accreditation as well as marginal limitations on institutional chartering. 28 When and how John Buchanan arrived upon this scene in Philadelphia is somewhat unclear. Based upon federal census information, Buchanan was born in Scotland in 1829 and arrived in America in He claimed to have obtained his medical training in Scotland at the Royal Infirmary in Glasgow, a biographical detail shared with students at EMC. One former student drafted a sketch of Buchanan years later and claimed Buchanan earned a medical degree from Glasgow though he also said that Buchanan obtained a degree from EMC before later 10

11 joining its faculty. 30 The earliest evidence for Buchanan practicing as a physician in Philadelphia is from 1860 when that year s census and a city directory reported John Buchanan, M.D. as residing at 1833 Callowhill Street. 31 However, if contemporary newspaper accounts critical of Buchanan are accurate, he arrived in the city much earlier, working for a time as a porter at Thomas Potter s oil cloth factory on Arch Street before what many saw as a suspiciously rapid transition to medical educator. 32 Regardless, Buchanan would have been hard-pressed to find a better location to practice medicine than Philadelphia. The city enjoyed a reputation as the center of American medicine. In part, this derived from several firsts the city enjoyed in the medical field: the country s first hospital (1751) and medical school (1765). Medical education flourished in mid-nineteenthcentury Philadelphia as the city hosted numerous medical schools at the end of the Civil War: the University of Pennsylvania, Jefferson Medical College, the Homeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania (later to become Hahnemann Medical College), the Women s Medical College of Pennsylvania, and two institutions later undone by the events of 1880 EMC and Philadelphia University of Medicine and Surgery. 33 Glimpses into Buchanan s character and personality survive through a handful of written descriptions. A former student considered him brilliant, a strong lecturer who worked without notes as he was deeply versed in his subject matter. Buchanan the orator was full of ideas... he had but to open his mouth and they flowed forth. These trait of self-assured loquaciousness was later perceived quite differently by newspapermen. Buchanan proved unflappable even when 11

12 caught unawares by reporters, one of whom came away with a grudging respect calling him shrewd, educated, self-possessed... and... well-calculated to take care of himself. 34 Trouble for Buchanan and the school became glaringly public in 1871, though precisely when the sale of diplomas became their raison d être is unclear. Such activities may have begun quite early in the prior decade. One can imagine the disruptions of the Civil War providing a convenient backdrop against closer scrutiny. All of the city s medical schools experienced significant declines in enrollment during the war though a collection of hospitals were set up to treat more than a hundred thousand wounded soldiers during the war. 35 These realities likely overshadowed any whispers of improper issuance of diplomas at EMC though the school s 1864 announcement touting a recent significant endowment raised suspicions in the eclectic circles. 36 Certainly by 1867, if not earlier, Buchanan s traffic in diplomas accelerated when he obtained a charter for the American University of Philadelphia. 37 Unlike the early EMC, which originated and existed for some period with legitimate purposes, the American University appears to have been created for no other purpose than providing another institution to sell diplomas. In addition, it appears the American University advertised heavily (circulars and newspaper ads) with an eye toward international customers who represented not only a new market but an opportunity to redirect potential scrutiny away from EMC. 38 A series of press reports in 1871 brought what one writer characterized as common report about questionable practices into the open, for example, the sale of diplomas for a fee without attendance at lectures or submission of a thesis. Transactions took place on-site but also 12

13 through an agent of the school or through the mail. In May, the New York Tribune ran an article titled M.D., $40 C.O.D., naming Buchanan and referencing the profusion of similarly titled schools in Philadelphia with more corporate names... [than] a Spanish prince of the Blood has titles. 39 In hindsight, it is clear that the naming conventions created a beneficial fog of confusion for those running these schools with dishonorable intent. School names that included Pennsylvania in the title (e.g., Eclectic Medical College of Pennsylvania) might be confused with the long-established University of Pennsylvania. Similarly, schools with Philadelphia in the title (e.g., Philadelphia University of Medicine and Surgery) might similarly be mistaken as an adjunct to the state s major university. Even if the intent were not to mistake a school for Penn, the use of eclectic medical college in the title would resonate with those sufficiently knowledgeable to be familiar with similarly named, legitimate institutions located elsewhere. 40 (See Table 1 for the lineage of these schools.) (Table 1). More sensational stories followed in late August when the death of a New York woman, Alice Bowlsby, during an abortion performed by the holder of an EMC diploma, prompted a Herald-Tribune sting of Buchanan and one of his agents selling a diploma. 41 Buchanan mounted a public defense by pointing an accusing finger at his former colleague, William Paine, now at the Philadelphia University of Medicine and Surgery, hinting that the slanders and dubious activities actually emanated from there

14 The Pennsylvania legislature responded by forming an investigative committee. The committee s charge called for investigating corrupt issuing of medical diplomas by any medical college in the state. The committee heard testimony and took depositions in February and March 1872 from an array of witnesses: EMC and Philadelphia University faculty, former students of the schools, investigative newspaper reporters, and so on. In addition, the committee accepted written evidence (e.g., advertisements) from the editor of the Philadelphia Medical and Surgical Reporter and officials with the University of Pennsylvania. Buchanan testified and denied any wrongdoing while attempting to explain the distinction among the three diploma types issued by the college: honorary, addendum, meritorious. According to Buchanan, the latter was conferred after prescribed course of study, specifically, three years study under a preceptor, completing two courses of lectures, a thesis, and examination by the faculty. He claimed the first two were granted either as an honorific or a degree conferred on top of a degree already held by the individual and not intended as a credential to satisfy the legal practice of medicine. The committee s final report was unequivocal. They dismissed any notions of wrongdoing at Jefferson Medical College and the University of Pennsylvania and cited ample evidence that John Buchanan (EMC and American University of Philadelphia) and William Paine (Philadelphia University) openly engaged in the sale of diplomas. The committee recommended the repeal of statutes incorporating the schools. 43 The legislature repealed the charters of EMC and Philadelphia University in March 1872 though apparently not that of the American University. 44 An infuriated Paine published Pennsylvania Frauds, contesting the 14

15 committee s evidence and pointing an accusatory finger at authorities with the University of Pennsylvania, editors for Philadelphia s Medical and Surgical Reporter, and pliant legislators. 45 An unexpected twist to the story came the following year when the Pennsylvania Supreme Court struck down the legislature s decision, ruling that the state constitution in effect when EMC was chartered did not confer authority to the legislature to repeal such charters without judicial proceedings. 46 In retrospect, an even more surprising development followed: after the Supreme Court decision, there were no official efforts to pursue the matter to its final resolution through the judicial proceedings identified as necessary at least, none until the events of 1880 as prompted by the Philadelphia Record exposé. Press coverage in 1880 included numerous theories for the failure of authorities to finish the matter in 1873 and afterward. One common theory involved Buchanan s influence and connections in local political circles. A contemporary Philadelphia physician, Daniel Garrison Brinton, editor of the Medical and Surgical Reporter and a leader in the early field of American anthropology, followed the legislative investigation closely in the pages of the Reporter. He acknowledged that Buchanan had been a power in the pot-house politics of this city years earlier. Brinton speculated that having made himself useful, Buchanan benefitted from indirect but efficient assistance by unnamed parties. 47 Some of these political connections emanated from within the EMC faculty as two of his faculty colleagues, Joseph Sites and Joseph Fitler, served on the Philadelphia Common Council as Sixteenth Ward representatives in the 1850s. 48 The editor of another Philadelphia publication, the Hahnemannian Monthly, echoed similar sentiments. As the journal 15

16 of Hahnemann Medical College, a homeopathic school predating the EMC, the Hahnemannian was well acquainted with Buchanan and bristled at the tendency of some to place homeopathic physicians in the same category of irregulars as graduates of EMC and American University. The Hahnemannian asserted bluntly that Buchanan owned somebody high in authority. 49 To some extent these suspicions were confirmed by later press accounts that alluded to threats and inducements targeting the legislative committee in 1872 and an 1881 confession by Buchanan that identified money spent in the hopes of favorable decisions by the legislative committee and later the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. 50 The other common explanatory thread given for Buchanan s ability to reengage in the diploma trade after 1873 stemmed from the factionalism among medical practitioners of that era. The rise in the 1830s of alternative philosophies in medicine led to deep divisions among American practitioners. Deviations from perceived medical orthodoxy drew extreme criticism from practitioners aligned through the American Medical Association (AMA) and a subsequent branding of homeopathic and eclectic practitioners as members of sects and irregulars. Tensions rose even higher after the AMA adopted a clause to its code of ethics prohibiting its members from consulting professionally with homeopathic and eclectic physicians. In the early 1870s, homeopathic and eclectic practitioners were still decades away from the absorption that incorporated many of them into a newly expanded definition of medical orthodoxy when the AMA dropped the consultative clause in

17 Thus, one explanation for Buchanan s success between 1873 and 1880 was that orthodox practitioners had no compelling motive to join forces with legal authorities to pursue the matter as his practices represented self-inflicted wounds to the eclectic school of medicine greater than any they could inflict. Others rationalized inaction and silence as the best course because direct movement against Buchanan and EMC would only trigger cries of persecution arising from professional jealousy. 52 In addition, some in the eclectic medical community pointed to the practice of bestowing honorary degrees by Old School institutions that bordered on practices uncomfortably similar to Buchanan s a line of inquiry largely skirted by the legislative committee. 53 Evidence gathered by the committee hinted at the circular nature of the diploma problem. As the diploma trade became more active, some states attempted to forestall the practice by passing laws forbidding the sale of diplomas, for example, Pennsylvania in May Yet this scrutiny and legal restrictions simply made the activity riskier and thus potentially more lucrative as registration laws drove up the demand, and subsequently the price, for the spurious documents. 54 This same effect can be seen with the rise of medical licensing laws during the 1870s. Years later, Frederick Waite cited this same dynamic in describing a 1920s era diploma scandal. The medical degree had become a prized credential because it was the only pathway to obtaining a medical license and, after the Harrison Narcotic Act (1914) and Volstead Act (1919), legal access to controlled substances

18 Despite gaining a favorable outcome in Allen v. Buchanan, the remainder of the 1870s proved challenging for Buchanan (and by extension EMC and American University) as he experienced multiple arrests on a series of charges. In 1874, a coroner s jury delivered a finding of criminal malpractice against Buchanan in the death of Emily Vandegrift. 56 Though Buchanan s treatment of Vandegrift appears to have been limited to cupping the patient, he was arrested by police detectives on September However, the matter appears to have been quietly dropped as no further mention is made of the case. In one regard, the medical malpractice accusation against Buchanan is not surprising and may have had little to do with his standing within Philadelphia s medical community. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, what had once been a seldom-raised allegation (medical malpractice) became an increasingly common charge brought against physicians by patients or their families reacting to real, or perceived, negative outcomes. That Vandegrift s family pressed the matter against Buchanan reflected evolving patient perceptions of what constituted acceptable care/outcomes and the potential vulnerability of even established physicians possessing assets sufficient to warrant a plaintiff s legal effort to secure damages. 58 Buchanan s activities came under more scrutiny in April 1876 when he was arrested for selling obscene materials. Though the Philadelphia Inquirer account offers no details, it seems reasonable to assume the material dealt with female hygiene and/or contraception in light of various accounts linking Buchanan to abortion and the 1873 passage of a federal law for the suppression of obscene literature (i.e., the Comstock law) that provided a legal basis for such 18

19 prosecutions. 59 Buchanan posted a thousand-dollar bond and then quietly disappeared amid press speculations that he had fled to Europe. 60 In early June, a constable assigned to secure the EMC property against creditors liens found workmen emptying the premises of all its contents. In following a wagon load of the school s goods into Camden, New Jersey, Philadelphia authorities found a cache of material from the property, but not before having to fend off alleged New Jersey authorities claiming that they were securing the property for creditors on their side of the Delaware River. Buchanan reappeared several months later when he was arrested near the college in September. U.S. Customs authorities at the Philadelphia port alerted police to Buchanan s possible presence when they identified a shipment consigned to him that contained blank diplomas. 61 Despite his arrest and release on two charges (obscene materials, customs seizure of fake diplomas) in 1876, not to mention his failure to appear for trial at least once, Buchanan does not appear to have been convicted in either matter. This string of legal matters is difficult to interpret. Were these arrests indicative of a concerted effort to squelch Buchanan s activities that local authorities were determined to make it untenable for him to remain in Philadelphia? Or should these events be read primarily in light of the apparent failure to convict in any of these matters, that is, that Buchanan retained some measure of connection among politico-legal authorities? Perhaps these events were an indication that Buchanan had grown careless or desperate in the conduct of his affairs? Regardless, the combination of mid-1870s legal matters without any resulting convictions and the failure of authorities to follow up after the Allen v. Buchanan decision left him in a position 19

20 to conduct his activities for the remainder of the decade. His timing, however, proved poor as momentum toward establishing medical licensing laws accelerated rapidly beginning in the 1880s. Efforts at establishing legal requirements for the practice of medicine (i.e., obtaining a medical degree, passing a licensing examination) arose seemingly in organic fashion among states and territories across the country in the late 1860s. 62 Historians addressing medical licensure generally cite several factors in the creation of these laws: (1) the emergence of medicine as a profession and the concomitant desire for socioeconomic status as professionals, (2) the efforts of medical societies and the AMA to secure legislation defining and limiting the practice of medicine, and (3) complementary efforts by educational reformers and the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) to place all medical schools within the academic confines of a formal university system. 63 All of these offer compelling prima facie explanations though they may overemphasize internal considerations at the expense of factors external to medicine and the profession, for example, changing societal expectations of the government s role, the influence and impact of the press in its coverage of sensational medical cases, and the claims of a burgeoning nineteenth-century patent medicine industry. Whatever their genesis, twenty jurisdictions passed medical practice laws prior to 1880 beginning with Ohio in 1868 (Table 2). 64 There were several often overlapping approaches in crafting these laws. Most were registration laws simply requiring physicians to file their name and place of business with a county clerk. Such laws called for registering physicians to present a diploma or evidence of 20

Chapter 3. Justice Process at the County Level. Brooks County Courthouse

Chapter 3. Justice Process at the County Level. Brooks County Courthouse Chapter 3 Justice Process at the County Level Brooks County Courthouse Chapter Three: Judice Process at the County Level Developmental Assets: Life Skills: TEKS: Objectives: 10. Safety 30. Responsibility

More information

Report and Recommendation In the Matter of Binh Quoc Doan, M.D. Page 2 II. Appearances A. On behalf of the State of Ohio: Jim Petro, Attorney General, by Rebecca J. Albers, Assistant Attorney General.

More information

Morgan County Prosecuting Attorney Debra MH McLaughlin

Morgan County Prosecuting Attorney Debra MH McLaughlin Morgan County Prosecuting Attorney Debra MH McLaughlin Directions: From Fairfax Street Entrance, Enter Main Door, turn Right through door, up the narrow staircase. Office is at top of steps. (Old Circuit

More information

The Legal System in the United States

The Legal System in the United States The Legal System in the United States At the conclusion of this chapter, students will be able to: 1. Understand how the legal system works; 2. Explain why laws are necessary; 3. Discuss how cases proceed

More information

Your Guide to Illinois Traffic Courts

Your Guide to Illinois Traffic Courts Consumer Legal Guide Your Guide to Illinois Traffic Courts Presented by the Illinois Judges Association and the Illinois State Bar Association Illinois Judges Association Traffic courts hear more cases

More information

AN INTRODUCTION COURT. Victim Services Department of Justice

AN INTRODUCTION COURT. Victim Services Department of Justice AN INTRODUCTION TO COURT Victim Services Department of Justice TABE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION......1 2. FIING A POICE REPORT...1 3. COURT PROCESS......2 4. TESTIFYING IN COURT...5 5. COMMONY ASKED QUESTIONS...6

More information

42 4 1301. Driving under the influence driving while impaired driving with excessive alcoholic content definitions penalties.

42 4 1301. Driving under the influence driving while impaired driving with excessive alcoholic content definitions penalties. 42 4 1301. Driving under the influence driving while impaired driving with excessive alcoholic content definitions penalties. (1) (a) It is a misdemeanor for any person who is under the influence of alcohol

More information

Stages in a Capital Case from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/

Stages in a Capital Case from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/ Stages in a Capital Case from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/ Note that not every case goes through all of the steps outlined here. Some states have different procedures. I. Pre-Trial Crimes that would

More information

General District Courts

General District Courts General District Courts To Understand Your Visit to Court You Should Know: It is the courts wish that you know your rights and duties. We want every person who comes here to receive fair treatment in accordance

More information

Criminal Law. Month Content Skills August. Define the term jurisprudence. Introduction to law. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws.

Criminal Law. Month Content Skills August. Define the term jurisprudence. Introduction to law. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws. Criminal Law Month Content Skills August Introduction to law Define the term jurisprudence. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws. Discuss the relationship between laws and values. Give

More information

Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now

Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now Criminal Court Felonies The U.S. has the highest rate of felony conviction and imprisonment of any industrialized nation. A felony crime is more serious than a misdemeanor, but the same offense can be

More information

Principles in Collision: Labor Union rights v. Employee civil Rights

Principles in Collision: Labor Union rights v. Employee civil Rights Principles in Collision: Labor Union rights v. Employee civil Rights Barry Winograd Arbitrator and mediator in Oakland, California Member of the National Academy of Arbitrators Adjunct faculty of the law

More information

APPEARANCE, PLEA AND WAIVER

APPEARANCE, PLEA AND WAIVER Guide to Municipal Court What Types of Cases Are Heard in Municipal Court? Cases heard in municipal court are divided into four general categories: Violations of motor vehicle and traffic laws Violations

More information

The Circuit Court. Judges and Clerks. Jurisdiction

The Circuit Court. Judges and Clerks. Jurisdiction The Circuit Court The circuit court is the trial court of general jurisdiction in Virginia, and the court has authority to try a full range of both civil and criminal cases. Civil cases involve disputes

More information

AN ANTITRUST PRIMER FOR PROCUREMENT PROFESSIONALS

AN ANTITRUST PRIMER FOR PROCUREMENT PROFESSIONALS PRICE FIXING & BID RIGGING - THEY HAPPEN: What They Are and What to Look For AN ANTITRUST PRIMER FOR PROCUREMENT PROFESSIONALS I. INTRODUCTION American consumers have the right to expect the benefits of

More information

Maricopa County Attorney s Office Adult Criminal Case Process

Maricopa County Attorney s Office Adult Criminal Case Process The following is a brief description of the process to prosecute an adult accused of committing a felony offense. Most misdemeanor offenses are handled by municipal prosecutors; cases involving minors

More information

Information for Crime Victims and Witnesses

Information for Crime Victims and Witnesses Office of the Attorney General Information for Crime Victims and Witnesses MARCH 2009 LAWRENCE WASDEN Attorney General Criminal Law Division Special Prosecutions Unit Telephone: (208) 332-3096 Fax: (208)

More information

Glossary of Terms Acquittal Affidavit Allegation Appeal Arraignment Arrest Warrant Assistant District Attorney General Attachment Bail Bailiff Bench

Glossary of Terms Acquittal Affidavit Allegation Appeal Arraignment Arrest Warrant Assistant District Attorney General Attachment Bail Bailiff Bench Glossary of Terms The Glossary of Terms defines some of the most common legal terms in easy-tounderstand language. Terms are listed in alphabetical order. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W

More information

CHAPTER. What is Criminal Justice? Criminal Justice: Criminal Justice: Criminal Justice: What is the Definition of Crime?

CHAPTER. What is Criminal Justice? Criminal Justice: Criminal Justice: Criminal Justice: What is the Definition of Crime? CHAPTER What is Criminal Justice? What is the Definition of Crime? Crime: What is Justice? Justice: Social Justice: Civil Justice: The Theme of this Book Individual Rights vs. Public Order The Theme of

More information

LEGISLATIVE RESEARCH COMMISSION PDF VERSION

LEGISLATIVE RESEARCH COMMISSION PDF VERSION CHAPTER 126 PDF p. 1 of 7 CHAPTER 126 (SB 206) AN ACT relating to relating to health practitioners. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky: SECTION 1. A NEW SECTION OF KRS

More information

ASSEMBLY BILL No. 1437

ASSEMBLY BILL No. 1437 AMENDED IN ASSEMBLY SEPTEMBER 10, 2015 california legislature 2015 16 regular session ASSEMBLY BILL No. 1437 Introduced by Assembly Member Gray February 27, 2015 An act to amend Section 19954 add Chapter

More information

SENATE BILL 817 CHAPTER. Maryland Individual Tax Preparers Act

SENATE BILL 817 CHAPTER. Maryland Individual Tax Preparers Act SENATE BILL Q, C, Q lr CF HB By: Senators Conway, Colburn, Della, Garagiola, Lenett, and Pugh Pugh, and Haines Introduced and read first time: February, 00 Assigned to: Rules Re referred to: Education,

More information

Chapter 153. Violations and Fines 2013 EDITION. Related Laws Page 571 (2013 Edition)

Chapter 153. Violations and Fines 2013 EDITION. Related Laws Page 571 (2013 Edition) Chapter 153 2013 EDITION Violations and Fines VIOLATIONS (Generally) 153.005 Definitions 153.008 Violations described 153.012 Violation categories 153.015 Unclassified and specific fine violations 153.018

More information

HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA

HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA The Office of Victims Rights receives many inquiries from victims about how a criminal case in Alaska is investigated by police and then prosecuted by

More information

4.2 The Scope Order is made under the power in s 4(2)(e) of the Act.

4.2 The Scope Order is made under the power in s 4(2)(e) of the Act. EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM TO THE COMPENSATION (REGULATED CLAIMS MANAGEMENT SERVICES) ORDER 2006 THE COMPENSATION (SPECIFICATION OF BENEFITS) ORDER 2006 THE COMPENSATION (CLAIMS MANAGEMENT SERVICES) REGULATIONS

More information

IT S OK TO SAY I M SORRY. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law.

IT S OK TO SAY I M SORRY. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. IT S OK TO SAY I M SORRY Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. We are all familiar with this phrase from the Miranda warning. It essentially advises a person accused of a

More information

ARREST! What Happens Now?

ARREST! What Happens Now? Personal Injury Wrongful Death Slip & Fall Automobile Accidents Trucking Accidents Motorcycle Accidents Medical Malpractice Criminal Defense You re Under ARREST! What Happens Now? Do NOT Speak to Police

More information

ETHICS IS EVERYBODY S BUSINESS. The Ohio Ethics Commission

ETHICS IS EVERYBODY S BUSINESS. The Ohio Ethics Commission ETHICS IS EVERYBODY S BUSINESS The Ohio Ethics Commission "No man is allowed to be a judge in his own cause, because his interest would certainly bias his judgment, and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity."

More information

Connecting with clients through authentic interactions that not only satisfy their practical needs, but also their emotional

Connecting with clients through authentic interactions that not only satisfy their practical needs, but also their emotional THE FAMILY LAW PROCESS AND ITS REQUIREMENTS Connecting with clients through authentic interactions that not only satisfy their practical needs, but also their emotional wants.! 1. ARRAIGNMENT: Arraignment

More information

Chapter 15 Criminal Law and Procedures

Chapter 15 Criminal Law and Procedures Chapter 15 Criminal Law and Procedures Chapter Outline 1. Introduction 2. What Is a Crime? 3. Elements of Criminal Liability 4. Types of Crimes 5. Cyber Crime 6. Constitutional Safeguards 7. Criminal Procedures

More information

INJURY LAW ALERT WINTER 2006/2007 ISSUE WHAT IS MEDICAL MALPRACTICE?

INJURY LAW ALERT WINTER 2006/2007 ISSUE WHAT IS MEDICAL MALPRACTICE? INJURY LAW ALERT WINTER 2006/2007 ISSUE WHAT IS MEDICAL MALPRACTICE? Medical malpractice is a broad term used to describe a number of different kinds of lawsuits brought against doctors and hospitals.

More information

REPORT OF FLORIDA PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS ASSOCIATION. Re: The Office of Statewide Prosecution DECEMBER 2001 I. BACKGROUND

REPORT OF FLORIDA PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS ASSOCIATION. Re: The Office of Statewide Prosecution DECEMBER 2001 I. BACKGROUND REPORT OF FLORIDA PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS ASSOCIATION Re: The Office of Statewide Prosecution DECEMBER 2001 I. BACKGROUND The Office of Statewide Prosecution (OSWP) was created by Constitutional Amendment

More information

EXTRADITION UP-TO-DATE FULL TEXT TRANSLATIONS. of the. EXTRADITION LAW and the

EXTRADITION UP-TO-DATE FULL TEXT TRANSLATIONS. of the. EXTRADITION LAW and the EXTRADITION UP-TO-DATE FULL TEXT TRANSLATIONS of the EXTRADITION LAW 5714-1954 and the EXTRADITION REGULATIONS (LAW PROCEDURES AND RULES OF EVIDENCE IN PETITIONS) 5731-1970 1. Extradition only under this

More information

Chapter 813. Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants 2013 EDITION. Title 59 Page 307 (2013 Edition)

Chapter 813. Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants 2013 EDITION. Title 59 Page 307 (2013 Edition) Chapter 813 2013 EDITION Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants GENERAL PROVISIONS 813.010 Driving under the influence of intoxicants; penalty 813.011 Felony driving under the influence of intoxicants;

More information

Colorado Revised Statutes 2014 TITLE 20

Colorado Revised Statutes 2014 TITLE 20 TITLE 20 DISTRICT ATTORNEYS ARTICLE 1 District Attorneys PART 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS 20-1-101. Bond and oath of district attorney and staff. (1) Every district attorney, before entering upon the duties of

More information

Defending Your License

Defending Your License Defending Your License The How-To for Michigan Health Care Professionals www.fb-firm.com About the Author: Tariq S. Hafeez Mr. Hafeez practices in the areas of business/corporate law, healthcare law, and

More information

Criminal Justice System Commonly Used Terms & Definitions

Criminal Justice System Commonly Used Terms & Definitions Criminal Justice System Commonly Used Terms & Definitions A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Accused: Acquittal: Adjudication: Admissible Evidence: Affidavit: Alford Doctrine: Appeal:

More information

BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY

BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY People make mistakes, especially young people. Juvenile lawyer Bryce Fetter believes children should get a second chance through rehabilitation rather

More information

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS RIGHTS OF THE CRIMINALLY ACCUSED GENERAL LEGAL RIGHTS CHAPTER 10 INTRODUCTION Constitutional rights relating to American criminal law are the same for all adult persons, whether they have a disability

More information

Nebraska Loan Broker Act Chapter 45, Article 1, Section f 45-189 to 45-193

Nebraska Loan Broker Act Chapter 45, Article 1, Section f 45-189 to 45-193 45-189 Loan brokers; legislative findings. The Legislature finds that: Nebraska Loan Broker Act Chapter 45, Article 1, Section f 45-189 to 45-193 (1) Many professional groups are presently licensed or

More information

Homeopathy Naturopathy Osteopathy Chiropractic Ayurveda and Conventional

Homeopathy Naturopathy Osteopathy Chiropractic Ayurveda and Conventional Credit: The image of Chinese medicine bottles from http://www.flickr.com/photos/moriza/49897087/ Homeopathy Naturopathy Osteopathy Chiropractic Ayurveda and Conventional Russell A. Faust, PhD, MD, FAAP

More information

SENATE BILL 1486 AN ACT

SENATE BILL 1486 AN ACT Senate Engrossed State of Arizona Senate Forty-fifth Legislature First Regular Session 0 SENATE BILL AN ACT AMENDING SECTION -, ARIZONA REVISED STATUTES, AS AMENDED BY LAWS 00, CHAPTER, SECTION ; AMENDING

More information

Vulnerabilities in the U.S. Passport System Can Be Exploited by Criminals and Terrorists

Vulnerabilities in the U.S. Passport System Can Be Exploited by Criminals and Terrorists Statement of Michael Johnson Former Special Agent in Charge, Miami Field Office, Diplomatic Security Service United States Department of State Before the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental

More information

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF MINNESOTA Criminal No.:

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF MINNESOTA Criminal No.: UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF MINNESOTA Criminal No.: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) ) Plaintiff, ) DEFERRED PROSECUTION ) AGREEMENT v. ) ) BIXBY ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC., ) ) Defendant. ) The United

More information

HEALTH OCCUPATIONS TITLE 19. SOCIAL WORKERS SUBTITLE 3. LICENSING

HEALTH OCCUPATIONS TITLE 19. SOCIAL WORKERS SUBTITLE 3. LICENSING HEALTH OCCUPATIONS TITLE 19. SOCIAL WORKERS SUBTITLE 3. LICENSING 19-301. License required; exceptions; practice without license (a) In general. -- Except as otherwise provided in this title, an individual

More information

An Evaluation of Efforts to Implement No-Drop Policies: Two Central Values in Conflict

An Evaluation of Efforts to Implement No-Drop Policies: Two Central Values in Conflict An Evaluation of Efforts to Implement No-Drop Policies: Two Central Values in Conflict By Barbara E. Smith and Robert C. Davis 2004 NCJ 199719 Barbara E. Smith, Ph.D., is a Consultant with the American

More information

Community Legal Information Association of Prince Edward Island, Inc.

Community Legal Information Association of Prince Edward Island, Inc. Community Legal Information Association of Prince Edward Island, Inc. Going to Court: Criminal Trial Procedure If you've been charged with a crime and your case has not been diverted from the courts system,

More information

Immigration Assistance Services

Immigration Assistance Services Immigration Assistance Services New York enacted A07137 into law in 2004. A07137 is reported to be the first to establish standards for immigration consultants. A press release from New York Governor Pataki

More information

The Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act California Civil Code 1788 et seq.

The Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act California Civil Code 1788 et seq. The Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act California Civil Code 1788 et seq. 1788. This title may be cited as the Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. 1788.1 (a) The Legislature makes the

More information

CRIMINAL LAW AND VICTIMS RIGHTS

CRIMINAL LAW AND VICTIMS RIGHTS Chapter Five CRIMINAL LAW AND VICTIMS RIGHTS In a criminal case, a prosecuting attorney (working for the city, state, or federal government) decides if charges should be brought against the perpetrator.

More information

Glossary. To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers can make arrests

Glossary. To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers can make arrests Criminal Law Glossary Arrest Charge Convicted Court Crime/Offence Crown Attorney or Prosecutor Criminal Custody Guilty Illegal Innocent Lawyer To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers

More information

White Collar Criminal Defense, Internal Investigations & Corporate Compliance

White Collar Criminal Defense, Internal Investigations & Corporate Compliance Butzel Long :: Practice :: Practice Teams :: White Collar Criminal Defense, Internal Investigations & Corporate Compliance Team Contacts David F. DuMouchel Related Lawyers George B. Donnini Damien DuMouchel

More information

WHAT S OLD IS NEW AGAIN. PROSECUTING WORKERS COMPENSATION FRAUD UNDER THE 2011 AMENDMENTS

WHAT S OLD IS NEW AGAIN. PROSECUTING WORKERS COMPENSATION FRAUD UNDER THE 2011 AMENDMENTS WHAT S OLD IS NEW AGAIN. PROSECUTING WORKERS COMPENSATION FRAUD UNDER THE 2011 AMENDMENTS Presented and Prepared by: William M. Blumthal, Jr. Supervisor, Workers' Compensation Fraud Unit Illinois Department

More information

12 LC 33 4683S. The House Committee on Health and Human Services offers the following substitute to HB 972: A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT

12 LC 33 4683S. The House Committee on Health and Human Services offers the following substitute to HB 972: A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT The House Committee on Health and Human Services offers the following substitute to HB 972: A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 To amend Chapter 34 of Title 43 of the Official Code

More information

Title 15 CRIMINAL PROCEDURE -Chapter 23 ALABAMA CRIME VICTIMS Article 3 Crime Victims' Rights

Title 15 CRIMINAL PROCEDURE -Chapter 23 ALABAMA CRIME VICTIMS Article 3 Crime Victims' Rights Section 15-23-60 Definitions. As used in this article, the following words shall have the following meanings: (1) ACCUSED. A person who has been arrested for committing a criminal offense and who is held

More information

The Lawyer s Independence

The Lawyer s Independence The Lawyer s Independence The Law on the Bar defines the Bar as an independent institution [Art 1] and it goes on to provide in Article 43 that a lawyer shall be independent.. and Article 44 sets out specific

More information

Federal Criminal Court

Federal Criminal Court No person... shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Amendment V. Defendant may not be compelled

More information

Assembly Bill No. 85 Committee on Commerce and Labor

Assembly Bill No. 85 Committee on Commerce and Labor Assembly Bill No. 85 Committee on Commerce and Labor CHAPTER... AN ACT relating to professions; transferring certain duties of the Secretary-Treasurer of the Board of Examiners for Alcohol, Drug and Gambling

More information

Lesson 4. Preventing and Policing White-Collar Crime

Lesson 4. Preventing and Policing White-Collar Crime Preventing and Policing ASSIGNMENT 11 Read this introduction and then read pages 260 294 in White- Collar Crime: The Essentials. White-collar crime is clearly complex and multifaceted. No single theory

More information

The Credit Reporting Act

The Credit Reporting Act 1 CREDIT REPORTING c. C-43.2 The Credit Reporting Act being Chapter C-43.2 of The Statutes of Saskatchewan, 2004 (effective March 1, 2005). NOTE: This consolidation is not official. Amendments have been

More information

Civil Or Criminal Securities Fraud A Blurry Line

Civil Or Criminal Securities Fraud A Blurry Line Portfolio Media, Inc. 648 Broadway, Suite 200 New York, NY 10012 www.law360.com Phone: +1 212 537 6331 Fax: +1 212 537 6371 customerservice@portfoliomedia.com Civil Or Criminal Securities Fraud A Blurry

More information

1. Applicable Statutes A. CODE OF ALABAMA TITLE 15. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. CHAPTER 13. BAIL. ARTICLES 1-6.

1. Applicable Statutes A. CODE OF ALABAMA TITLE 15. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. CHAPTER 13. BAIL. ARTICLES 1-6. Alabama bail laws 1. Applicable Statutes A. CODE OF ALABAMA TITLE 15. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. CHAPTER 13. BAIL. ARTICLES 1-6. 2. Licensing Requirements for Agents A. The Code of Alabama, Alabama Rules of Criminal

More information

AS MUCH AS TIMES CHANGE

AS MUCH AS TIMES CHANGE AS MUCH AS TIMES CHANGE FEDERAL DRUG CHARGES STAY THE SAME A White Paper Presented by Ron Cordova, Attorney-at-Law AN OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL DRUG CRIMES AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF CONVICTION California s stance

More information

DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS

DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS This pamphlet has been provided to help you better understand the federal

More information

COMMENTS OF MARK P. CRESSMAN, ESQUIRE FLORIDA BAR NO: 0051519 AND OBJECTIONS TO PROPOSED AMENDMENT

COMMENTS OF MARK P. CRESSMAN, ESQUIRE FLORIDA BAR NO: 0051519 AND OBJECTIONS TO PROPOSED AMENDMENT IN RE: PETITION TO AMEND RULE 4-1.5(f)(4)(B) OF THE RULES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT / IN THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA CASE NO.: SC05-1150 COMMENTS OF MARK P. CRESSMAN, ESQUIRE FLORIDA BAR NO:

More information

A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System

A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System The Bartholomew County Prosecutor s Office Victim Assistance Program Prosecutor: William Nash 234 Washington Street Columbus, IN 47201 Telephone:

More information

NOT ACTUAL PROTECTION: ACTUAL INNOCENCE STANDARD FOR CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS IN CALIFORNIA DOES NOT ELIMINATE ACTUAL LAWSUITS AND ACTUAL PAYMENTS

NOT ACTUAL PROTECTION: ACTUAL INNOCENCE STANDARD FOR CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS IN CALIFORNIA DOES NOT ELIMINATE ACTUAL LAWSUITS AND ACTUAL PAYMENTS NOT ACTUAL PROTECTION: ACTUAL INNOCENCE STANDARD FOR CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS IN CALIFORNIA DOES NOT ELIMINATE ACTUAL LAWSUITS AND ACTUAL PAYMENTS By Celeste King, JD and Barrett Breitung, JD* In 1998

More information

Senate Bill No. 86 Committee on Transportation and Homeland Security

Senate Bill No. 86 Committee on Transportation and Homeland Security Senate Bill No. 86 Committee on Transportation and Homeland Security CHAPTER... AN ACT relating to offenses; providing that counseling and evaluations required for certain offenses may be conducted in

More information

CLINICAL LABORATORY ACT, THE Act of Sep. 26, 1951, P.L. 1539, No. 389 AN ACT Defining clinical laboratory; regulating the operation of the same;

CLINICAL LABORATORY ACT, THE Act of Sep. 26, 1951, P.L. 1539, No. 389 AN ACT Defining clinical laboratory; regulating the operation of the same; CLINICAL LABORATORY ACT, THE Act of Sep. 26, 1951, P.L. 1539, No. 389 AN ACT Cl. 35 Defining clinical laboratory; regulating the operation of the same; requiring such laboratories to obtain permits, and

More information

CHAPTER 331. C.45:2D-1 Short title. 1. This act shall be known and may be cited as the "Alcohol and Drug Counselor Licensing and Certification Act.

CHAPTER 331. C.45:2D-1 Short title. 1. This act shall be known and may be cited as the Alcohol and Drug Counselor Licensing and Certification Act. CHAPTER 331 AN ACT to license and certify alcohol and drug counselors, creating an Alcohol and Drug Counselor Committee, revising various parts of the statutory law. BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General

More information

A Citizen s Guide to the Criminal Justice System: From Arraignment to Appeal

A Citizen s Guide to the Criminal Justice System: From Arraignment to Appeal A Citizen s Guide to the Criminal Justice System: From Arraignment to Appeal Presented by the Office of the Richmond County District Attorney Acting District Attorney Daniel L. Master, Jr. 130 Stuyvesant

More information

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORIGINAL COMPLAINT

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORIGINAL COMPLAINT UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION WALTER ALLEN ROTHGERY, v. Plaintiff, GILLESPIE COUNTY, TEXAS, Defendant. Cause No. ORIGINAL COMPLAINT Plaintiff Walter Allen

More information

TESTIMONY OF CAROLINE CIRAOLO ACTING ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL TAX DIVISION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BEFORE THE

TESTIMONY OF CAROLINE CIRAOLO ACTING ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL TAX DIVISION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BEFORE THE TESTIMONY OF CAROLINE CIRAOLO ACTING ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL TAX DIVISION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON FINANCE UNITED STATES SENATE FOR A HEARING CONCERNING TAX SCHEMES AND SCAMS

More information

PAST CRIME, CRIME FRAUD, FUTURE CRIME: WHERE ARE WE? By Abraham A. Dash and Franklin A. Dash

PAST CRIME, CRIME FRAUD, FUTURE CRIME: WHERE ARE WE? By Abraham A. Dash and Franklin A. Dash PAST CRIME, CRIME FRAUD, FUTURE CRIME: WHERE ARE WE? By Abraham A. Dash and Franklin A. Dash Mr. Abraham Dash is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Maryland School of Law and Mr. Franklin Dash is

More information

Glossary of Court-related Terms

Glossary of Court-related Terms Glossary of Court-related Terms Acquittal Adjudication Appeal Arraignment Arrest Bail Bailiff Beyond a reasonable doubt Burden of proof Capital offense Certification Charge Circumstantial evidence Citation

More information

SB 588. Employment: nonpayment of wages: Labor Commissioner: judgment enforcement.

SB 588. Employment: nonpayment of wages: Labor Commissioner: judgment enforcement. SB 588. Employment: nonpayment of wages: Labor Commissioner: judgment enforcement. (1) The Enforcement of Judgments Law provides for the enforcement of money judgments and other civil judgments. Under

More information

UNDERSTANDING MONEY LAUNDERING

UNDERSTANDING MONEY LAUNDERING UNDERSTANDING MONEY LAUNDERING Preface In light of the international concerns growing on money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities, many countries have taken rigorous measures to curb

More information

Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Centre Act 2004 No 42

Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Centre Act 2004 No 42 New South Wales Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Centre Act 2004 No 42 Contents Page 1 Name of Act 2 2 Commencement 2 3 Amendment of Drug Court Act 1998 No 150 2 4 Amendment of Crimes (Sentencing

More information

JEFFERSON COUNTY BAIL BOND BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS

JEFFERSON COUNTY BAIL BOND BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS JEFFERSON COUNTY BAIL BOND BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS Pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 1704, Texas Occupations Code (hereafter, the Code ), as amended, the following rules and regulations are adopted

More information

SENATE BILL 1099 AN ACT

SENATE BILL 1099 AN ACT Senate Engrossed State of Arizona Senate Forty-third Legislature First Regular Session SENATE BILL AN ACT amending sections -, -.0, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, - and -, Arizona revised statutes; repealing section

More information

Medical Innovation Bill

Medical Innovation Bill Medical Innovation Bill Response to the Department of Health Consultation, April 2014 Kingsley Napley LLP are a firm of solicitors. We have a team that specialises in clinical negligence, acting exclusively

More information

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT Chief David L. Perry

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT Chief David L. Perry FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT Chief David L. Perry 830 West Jefferson Street 850-644-1234 VICTIMS' RIGHTS BROCHURE YOUR RIGHTS AS A VICTIM OR WITNESS: ------- We realize that for many persons,

More information

HOMICIDE IN CANADA. Bonny Walford

HOMICIDE IN CANADA. Bonny Walford TP< I HOMICIDE IN CANADA Bonny Walford The crime of homicide is regarded as the most heinous of crimes by most members of Canadian society. Society's degree of condemnation is reflected in the severity

More information

CRIMINAL COURT IN MINNESOTA: Understanding the Process so You can Sleep at Night

CRIMINAL COURT IN MINNESOTA: Understanding the Process so You can Sleep at Night RYAN PACYGA CRIMINAL DEFENSE 333 South 7 th Street, Suite 2850 Minneapolis, MN 55402 612-339-5844 www.arrestedmn.com More information on the YouTube channel Ryan Pacyga CRIMINAL COURT IN MINNESOTA: Understanding

More information

INDIANA FALSE CLAIMS AND WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION ACT. IC 5-11-5.5 Chapter 5.5. False Claims and Whistleblower Protection

INDIANA FALSE CLAIMS AND WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION ACT. IC 5-11-5.5 Chapter 5.5. False Claims and Whistleblower Protection As amended by P.L.79-2007. INDIANA FALSE CLAIMS AND WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION ACT IC 5-11-5.5 Chapter 5.5. False Claims and Whistleblower Protection IC 5-11-5.5-1 Definitions Sec. 1. The following definitions

More information

June 6, 2012. Jesus Bernal. Background

June 6, 2012. Jesus Bernal. Background Statement of U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein on the Nominations of Jesus G. Bernal to be a U.S. District Judge for the Central District of California and Grande Lum to be Director of the Community Relations

More information

The Federal Criminal Process

The Federal Criminal Process Federal Public Defender W.D. Michigan The Federal Criminal Process INTRODUCTION The following summary of the federal criminal process is intended to provide you with a general overview of how your case

More information

Rule 82.1 Who May Appear as Counsel; Who May Appear Pro Se

Rule 82.1 Who May Appear as Counsel; Who May Appear Pro Se Rule 82.1 Who May Appear as Counsel; Who May Appear Pro Se Only members of the bar of this Court may appear as counsel in civil cases. Only individuals who are parties in civil cases may represent themselves.

More information

Request for City Council Committee Action From the City Attorney s Office

Request for City Council Committee Action From the City Attorney s Office Request for City Council Committee Action From the City Attorney s Office Date: August 25, 2004 To: Public Safety & Regulatory Services Committee Referral to: Subject: Proposed Ordinance Governing an Automated

More information

Provider Beware The Collateral Consequences of a Guilty Plea

Provider Beware The Collateral Consequences of a Guilty Plea Attorney General Medical Board Pharmacy Board Medicaid Health Department CMS DEA FBI Medicare OIG security You re A Target. We Can Help. Health care providers face more scrutiny than ever before. Government

More information

LLED Doctoral Program Requirements

LLED Doctoral Program Requirements LLED Doctoral Program Requirements Students are responsible for information on the Graduate School website. See, especially the Graduate Bulletin and the Graduate School s Academic Regulations & Procedures

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF LAW. LEGAL METHOD-CIVIL PROCEDURE (3 Hours) Day Division Wednesday, December 18, 1991

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF LAW. LEGAL METHOD-CIVIL PROCEDURE (3 Hours) Day Division Wednesday, December 18, 1991 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF LAW LEGAL METHOD-CIVIL PROCEDURE (3 Hours) Day Division Wednesday, December 18, 1991 Professor Condlin - Section B 9:10 a.m. - 12:10 p.m. No. Signature: Printed Name: INSTRUCTIONS:

More information

GUIDELINES ON SANCTION FOR EMPLOYMENT OF COUNSEL IN CRIMINAL APPLICATIONS

GUIDELINES ON SANCTION FOR EMPLOYMENT OF COUNSEL IN CRIMINAL APPLICATIONS GUIDELINES ON SANCTION FOR EMPLOYMENT OF COUNSEL IN CRIMINAL APPLICATIONS Scottish Legal Aid Board January 2010 THE SCOTTISH LEGAL AID BOARD EMPLOYMENT OF COUNSEL IN CRIMINAL APPLICATIONS 1. BACKGROUND

More information

COURT OF APPEALS RICHLAND COUNTY, OHIO FIFTH APPELLATE DISTRICT

COURT OF APPEALS RICHLAND COUNTY, OHIO FIFTH APPELLATE DISTRICT [Cite as State v. Newcome, 2016-Ohio-1022.] COURT OF APPEALS RICHLAND COUNTY, OHIO FIFTH APPELLATE DISTRICT STATE OF OHIO : JUDGES: : Hon. Sheila G. Farmer, P.J. Plaintiff-Appellee : Hon. W. Scott Gwin,

More information

VIRGINIA DUI FACTSHEET

VIRGINIA DUI FACTSHEET VIRGINIA DUI FACTSHEET BOSE LAW FIRM, PLLC Former Police & Investigators Springfield Offices: 6354 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102 Springfield, Virginia 22152 Telephone: 703.926.3900 Facsimile: 800.927.6038

More information

NC General Statutes - Chapter 93B 1

NC General Statutes - Chapter 93B 1 Chapter 93B. Occupational Licensing Boards. 93B-1. Definitions. As used in this Chapter: "License" means any license (other than a privilege license), certificate, or other evidence of qualification which

More information

Illinois Compiled Statutes. HIGHER EDUCATION (110 ILCS 1005/) Private College Act.

Illinois Compiled Statutes. HIGHER EDUCATION (110 ILCS 1005/) Private College Act. Illinois Compiled Statutes HIGHER EDUCATION (110 ILCS 1005/) Private College Act. (110 ILCS 1005/0.01) (from Ch. 144, par. 120) Sec. 0.01. Short title. This Act may be cited as the Private College Act.

More information

Guide to Criminal procedure

Guide to Criminal procedure Guide to Criminal procedure This free guide gives a general idea to members of the public as to what you may expect to encounter if you or someone you know is charged with a criminal offence. The overriding

More information

CJ-310 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

CJ-310 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE INTRODUCTION ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE Welcome to,. This course is designed to provide a range of information about the criminal justice system and to teach criminal justice students fundamental concepts

More information

NC General Statutes - Chapter 90B 1

NC General Statutes - Chapter 90B 1 Chapter 90B. Social Worker Certification and Licensure Act. 90B-1. Short title. This Chapter shall be known as the "Social Worker Certification and Licensure Act." (1983, c. 495, s. 1; 1999-313, s. 1.)

More information