1 Psychological Bulletin 1991, Vol. L10, No. 1, Copyright 1991 by the American Psychological Association, Inc /91/i3.00 What Is Beautiful Is Good, But...: A Meta-Anatytic Review of Research on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype Alice H. Eagjy Purdue University Richard D. Ashmore Rutgers The State University of New Jersey Mona G. Makhijani Purdue University Laura C. Longo Rutgers The State University of New Jersey This review demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although subjects in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study Consistent with our implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that subjects were asked to make: The differences in subjects* perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information. One of the most widely cited conclusions from research on physical attractiveness is summarized by Dion, Berscheid, and Walster's (1972) claim that, in people's perceptions of others, "what is beautiful is good" (p. 285). This statement linking beauty and goodness suggests the existence of a stereotype whereby physically attractive individuals are believed to possess a wide variety of positive personal qualities. In this article, we integrate the available research on the physical attractiveness stereotype to determine the extent to which the statement that what is beautiful is good provides an accurate summary of people's inferences from cues that convey physical attractiveness. In the classic study on the physical attractiveness stereotype, Dion and her associates (1972) had subjects rate facial photographs that had been selected on the basis of judges' agreement that the pictured individuals were low, medium, or high in physical attractiveness. Subjects' ratings pertained to various person- This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grants BNS to Richard EX Ashmore and Frances K. Del Boca, Co-Principal Investigators, and BNS-S to Alice H. Eagl>; Principal Investigator. A preliminary report of this research was reported at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society, June A table showing the effect sizes and study characteristics for each study included in the meta-analysis is available from Alice H. Eagly or Richard EX Ashmore. We thank Thomas Alley, Ellen Berscheid, Linda Jackson, and three anonymous reviewers for their comments on a draft of the article. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Alice H. Eagly, Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana , or Richard D. Ashmore, Department of Psychology, Tillett Hall, Kilmer Campus, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey ality traits as well as to life outcomes such as marital happiness and career success. Indeed, subjects ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to the pictured individuals to the extent that they were physically attractive. The experimental paradigm introduced by Dion and her colleagues (1972) has guided many subsequent investigators, and there is, thus, a relatively large body of research on the attractiveness stereotype. Most narrative reviewers of this literature have agreed that the beauty-is-good stereotype is a strong and general phenomenon (Adams, 1982; Alley & Hildebrandt, 1988; Berscheid, 1981; Berscheid & Walster, 1974; Dion, 1981,1986; Hatfield &Sprecher, 1986; Patzer, 1985). For example, Hatfield and Sprecher wrote that "people believe good-looking people possess almost all the virtues known to humankind" (p. xix). Most secondary sources, especially introductory social psychology textbooks, have likewise treated the beauty-is-good stereotype as a homogeneous, potent, and firmly established phenomenon (e.g, see Baron & Byrne, 1987, p. 197; Deaux & Wrightsman, 1988, p. 250). In this article, we report the first use of meta-analytic procedures to combine quantitatively the existing studies to examine the strength and generality of the attractiveness stereotype. Although the general consensus in social psychology is that an attractive target leads perceivers to make strong inferences of personality goodness, reviewers have noted exceptions to this phenomenon. Dion (1981,1986) suggested that the beauty-isgood effect is strongest for measures of social competence and interpersonal ease, and Bassili (1981) reached a similar conclusion, arguing that the core of the physical attractiveness stereotype is social vitality or extroversion. Also, beginning with Dermer and Thiel (1975), reviewers noted a dark side to the 109
2 110 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO stereotype. Cash and Janda (1984, p. 52) labeled this aspect the "what is beautiful is self-centered" stereotype on the basis of their observation that attractive people may be thought to be vain and egotistical. What is needed at this point is a formal and general scheme for understanding these qualifications and exceptions. As a step in this direction, we conceptualize the process underlying the attractiveness stereotype in terms of the person-perception construct of implicit personality theory (see also Adams, 1982; McArthur, 1982). We then frame predictions about variation in the beauty-is-good effect in terms of this conceptual approach. These hypotheses are tested by means of a quantitative review of the accumulated research. Before presenting the details of this review, we situate our discussion of the beauty-is-good stereotype within the total body of research and theory on physical attractiveness. Social Psychology of Beauty A large amount of research has accumulated on physical attractiveness (see Cash's, 1981, bibliography of almost 500 nonredundant entries). Because this research area is multidisciplinary, the studies are methodologically diverse and pertain to a variety of specific hypotheses. However, among studies formulated at a social psychological level of analysis, most research has addressed three broad questions: (a) Are attractive people perceived differently than unattractive people? (b) Are attractive people treated differently than unattractive people? (c) Do attractive people have different characteristics (i., personality traits, skills, behavioral tendencies) than unattractive people? The first research area, the perception of beautiful people, concerns stereotyping on the basis of physical appearance. The second area, which concerns differential treatment as a function of physical attractiveness, examines looks-based discrimination, a phenomenon that depends on factors in addition to stereotypes about physical attractiveness (e.g., the social roles governing interaction). The third type of research focuses not on people's reactions to targets, but on the characteristics of attractive and unattractive individuals, as measured by various methods of psychological assessment (e.g., personality tests, self-reports of behavior, observations of behavior). The findings of this third type of research have often been interpreted in terms of self-fulfilling prophecies (e.g, Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid, 1977) or a kernel of truth that underlies the attractiveness stereotype (e.g., Alley & Hildebrandt, 1988). Our review concerns only the first area of social psychological research on attractiveness: the perception of attractive and unattractive individuals. There are several reasons for this focus. One reason is practical: A thorough review of all three aspects of physical attractiveness research would require many years to complete and would produce an outcome too large for presentation in an article format. A second reason is strategic: Meta-analyses are best targeted to research literatures that are not defined extremely broadly and that have at least a moderate amount of methodological coherence (see Mullen, 1989). A third reason is analytic: The beauty-is-good stereotype is generally regarded as providing the major mechanism underlying differential treatment based on attractiveness and the development of differential assessed characteristics, at least insofar as these characteristics are mediated by self-fulfilling prophecies. Therefore, the stereotype question can be regarded as more basic to social psychological analysis than the questions of treatment and assessed characteristics. If the physical attractiveness stereotype is not at least moderately strong and robust, it is unlikely to underlie the effects of physical attractiveness on treatment and people's characteristics. Our decision to focus on the physical attractiveness stereotype has two important implications one methodological and one theoretical. Methodologically, we targeted our meta-analysis to include only studies that assess the physical attractiveness stereotype in a relatively pure form, without the constraints of particular role relationships such as those that regulate social interaction between teachers and students or therapists and patients. To examine stereotyping in a relatively role-free environment, we included in our review only those studies in which subjects inferred the attributes of people to whom they were not linked by particular social roles. Subjects' inferences from physical appearance in role-regulated environments should be considered in future reviews that are conceptualized to take the specifics of role relationships into account. In terms of theoretical implications, our focus on the physical attractiveness stereotype led us to formulate our review in terms of existing psychological research on impression formation and stereotyping. We now turn to this formulation. Physical Attractiveness Stereotype and Implicit Personality Theory Ashmore and Del Boca (1979; see also Ashmore, 1981; Ashmore, Del Boca, & Wohlers, 1986) argued that stereotypes can be fruitfully conceptualized in terms of the concept of implicit personality theory (D. J. Schneider, 1973). By treating stereotypes as part of ordinary social cognition (see also Hamilton, 1981), Ashmore and his co-workers placed stereotypes within the larger set of knowledge structures that individuals use to make sense of other people's behavior. More specifically, implicit personality theories are hypothetical cognitive structures whose primary components are personal attributes (e.g., personality traits) and inferential relations that specify the degree to which these attributes covary. The link between such implicit theories and stereotypes about group members becomes apparent when we regard group membership as one of the personal attributes inferentially associated with other attributes in such an implicit theory (Ashmore, 1981). In fact, the inferential relations between group membership and other personal attributes can be regarded as synonymous with the stereotype itself. Thus, translating the usual definition of stereotype as a set of beliefs about the characteristics of group members into the language of implicit personality theory, Ashmore and Del Boca (1979) defined stereotype as "a structured set of inferential relations that link a social category with personal attributes" (p. 225). The utility of this conceptualization has been demonstrated for gender stereotypes. Using the implicit personality theory approach, Ashmore and his colleagues identified the inferential relations linking the social categories of male and female to various dimensions of personality perception (see Ashmore, 1981). Specifically, the distinction between male and female was closely associated with the personality dimension of strong-weak (or potency). Also men were thought to possess
3 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 111 positive intellectual qualities such as scientific and negative social attributes such as sternness. In contrast, women were associated with negative intellectual qualities such as naivete and positive social attributes such as helpfulness. From this same perspective, research on the beauty-is-good stereotype can be viewed as examining the inferential relations between physical attractiveness and personal attributes. The social categories of attractive and unattractive people should thus be associated in individuals' cognitions with various dimensions of personality. This approach contrasts with those analyses of the physical attractiveness stereotype that take into account only inferences from attractiveness to the general favorability of personality. This presumed inference from attractiveness to evaluation is precisely described by the statement that beauty is good. This one-dimensional evaluative model treats the different trait and life-outcome dependent variables used in attractiveness research as if they indexed a single, abstract good-bad continuum. Although the notion of a contentfree evaluative dimension has much conceptual and empirical value (e.g., Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957), research on implicit personality theory has demonstrated that the evaluative dimension can be partitioned by perceivers into contentspecific types of evaluative meaning. Support for this partitioning of evaluative meaning exists in Rosenberg and his colleagues' research using multidimensional scaling (Kim & Rosenberg, 1980; Rosenberg, 1977; Rosenberg, Nelson, & Vivekananthan, 1968; Rosenberg & Sedlak, 1972). According to this research, one particularly important distinction between types of evaluative meaning, at least for young adults, is between social and intellectual competence (Rosenberg, 1977; Rosenberg et al, 1968). In addition, on the basis of his own and others' research, Rosenberg identified the content-specific evaluative categories of maturity, concern for others, integrity, psychological stability, and physical attractiveness. He also designated potency as an important category that is sometimes relatively independent of evaluation (Kim & Rosenberg, 1980; Rosenberg et al, 1968; see also Ashmore, 1981). In view of Rosenberg's inclusion of physical attractiveness among these content-specific evaluative categories, analyzing the beauty-is-good stereotype within the framework of implicit personality theory is especially appropriate. This conceptual framework suggests that part of the variation in the impact of physical attractiveness on subjects' inferences about personality and life outcomes may be explained by the specific content of these inferences (see also Bull & Rumsey, 1988, pp ). In particular, physical attractiveness may be more strongly linked to some dimensions of implicit personality theories than to other dimensions. To test this possibility, we developed a content-analysis scheme for classifying the dependent variables used in studies of the physical attractiveness stereotype into the components identified in research on implicit personality theory. This scheme takes Rosenbergls (1977) evaluative categories as its starting point. Although Rosenberg's maturity category could not be treated as a separate class because it was.seldom represented in research on the physical attractiveness stereotype, dependent variables corresponding to Rosenberg's other types were common enough to include them as categories in the meta-analysis: social competence, intellectual competence, concern for others, integrity, adjustment (i, psychological stability), and potency. The core of the social competence category is those interpersonal skills and traits concerned with sociability (e.g., extraversion) as well as the outcomes of such skills and inclinations (e.g., popularity). Social competence, as here construed, corresponds closely with Bassili's (1981, p. 242) "social vitality" and Dion's (1986, p. 8) "social competence and interpersonal ease." The intellectual competence category centers on intellectual and task-relevant ability (e.g, intelligent) and the results of such ability and motivation (eg, career success); this category also encompasses a hard and rational mental style (e.g., practical). Concern for others, like social competence, implies interpersonal skills. The emphasis, however, is not on sociability and popularity, but concern for others' welfare and the associated quality of selflessness. The positive side of this category involves being emotionally supportive as well as sensitive and generous to others. The negative side of this category, which includes traits such as vain and egotistical, is the dark side of the attractiveness stereotype acknowledged by some reviewers (eg., Adams, 1982; Cash & Janda, 1984). The crucial issue for defining the integrity category is honesty. This quality can take the form of interpersonal actions such as telling the truth (vs. being a liar) or abiding by laws and norms (vs. breaking them). The adjustment category, which is a slight enlargement of Rosenberg's (1977) psychological stability category, includes not only normal (vs. abnormal) psychological functioning, but also other indicators of positive adult adjustment, such as self-esteem and good health. Potency resembles Osgood and colleagues' (1957) potency or strong versus weak factor. In interpersonal terms, potency implies dominance over other people (Ashmore, 1981; White, 1980). Sources of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype Understanding how these types of evaluative meanings might he mentally associated with physical attractiveness requires consideration of how people learn their implicit theories of personality including their beliefs about what is associated with good looks. Two general types of inputs seem most important: (a) direct observations of attractive and unattractive people in onets social environment and (b) exposure to cultural representations of attractive and unattractive people. 1 With regard to direct observation, perceivers no doubt observe that better looking people receive more favorable reactions from others; for example, attractive people are more popular with peers and receive preferential treatment from others (see reviews by Adams, 1982; Dion, 1981,1986; Feingold, 1990b; Patzer, 1985; but see Bull & Rumsey, 1988; Langlois, 1986). Perceivers may assume that these favorable reactions are elicited, not merely by 1 In addition, physical attractiveness may be aesthetically pleasing and therefore may elicit positive affect that leads perceivers to infer, perhaps to account for the affect, that attractive people have favorable characteristics. Although there is little evidence that the sight of physically attractive people induces positive affect, researchers who manipulate affect by presenting photographic slides commonly include images of physically attractive people among the stimuli that induce positive affect (e.g., Larsen, Diener, & Cropanzano, 1987).
4 112 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHUANI, AND LONGO people's good looks, but by other positive aspects of people's behavior and personality. Depending in part on the impact that popularity and favorable treatment have on personality and behavior, perceivers may observe that physical attractiveness is correlated with various positive traits. Consistent with Feingold's (1990b) review, research on the true covariation between physical attractiveness and other personal attributes suggests that good looks covary with social skills, social adjustment, and an absence of shyness and social anxiety (e.g., Adams, 1977; Adams & Wareham, no date; Goldman & Lewis, 1977; Lerner & Lerner, 1977; Pilkonis, 1977). Aside from this relation between physical attractiveness and social competence, evidence for true covariation between good looks and personal attributes is much less convincing, although there is some suggestion of a weak positive correlation with adjustment (see Cash, 1985) and potency (Adams, 1977; Chaiken, 1979,1986). Turning to cultural messages about appearance, we suggest that American culture associates beauty with good things and ugliness with bad things. In children's television and books, the wicked witch and evil giant are ugly and the heroic prince and virtuous princess are attractive. In advertising, attractive models appear in positive settings (e.g, in happy crowds, as the object of admiration) and with valued possessions (e.g- fancy cars, fashionable clothes). In addition, as shown by Downs and Harrison's (1985) content analysis of the verbal content of television commercials, statements extolling the virtues of attractive appearance are quite common. \et in these cultural productions, beauty may be associated more often with some positive qualities than others. Although appropriate content analyses of media content are lacking, we suspect that the media most often link good looks with sociability and popularity, especially with the opposite sex. We doubt that the media consistently associate physical attractiveness with integrity, concern for others, adjustment, or potency. Cultural portrayals of individuals outstanding in these qualities are not clearly distinguished by positive appearance, nor are beautiful people necessarily exemplars of such qualities. Despite the possibility that the media may portray attractive people as successful in their careers, we doubt that physical attractiveness is strongly linked with intellectual competence in the popular culture. People depicted as outstanding in intellect or accomplishment are not uniformly good-looking, nor are good-looking people necessarily portrayed as smart and accomplished (e.g, those labeled as dumb blondes). A weaker impact of attractiveness on intellectual competence than on social competence was supported by Ashmore, Tumia, and Schreier's (1980) variation of the classic Asch (1946) experiment on the effect of the adjectives warm or cold on impression formation. Ashmore and colleagues substituted good-looking for warm and unattractive for cold, and they found that this attractiveness manipulation strongly influenced the ascription of social competence to the stimulus person but not the ascription of intellectual competence. In understanding the content of the physical attractiveness stereotype, we also need to take into account the inferences by which perceivers may associate stereotypic attributes with other personal attributes. In particular, given the strong link we have demonstrated between attractiveness and social competence, perceivers may infer on the basis of attractive people's presumed social competence that they have other favorable traits. For example, given that popularity is valued, physical attractiveness may be viewed as a valued commodity and thereby as a source of interpersonal power. As a consequence, perceivers may associate beauty with interpersonal potency. In addition, perceivers may assume that good looks are not only a source of power but also major ingredients of happiness, self-esteem, and the other aspects of adjustment. Yet, all these second-order inferences that people make from attractiveness may not lead to positive impressions of beautiful targets. For example, concerning integrity, people might infer that attractive individuals are exposed to more opportunities for interpersonal cheating (e.g, married people having affairs; see Brigham, 1980). Also perceivers may assume that the popularity of attractive people makes it unnecessary for them to develop nurturant qualities or interpersonal sensitivity to maintain their friendships and other relationships. In conclusion, our reasoning suggests a number of principles that might underlie the content and structure of the physical attractiveness stereotype. Most important, good looks should strongly imply social competence because of (a) the perception that attractive individuals elicit positive reactions from others, (b) the perception of true covariation between attractiveness and social competence, and (c) the media portrayal of attractiveness as critical to heterosexual popularity and social attention. In addition, good looks may imply a variety of other positive qualities based on the inferential linkages we have noted and possibly based to some extent on observations of true (or mediadepicted) covariation between attractiveness and other attributes. This analysis, therefore, does support the notion of a general mental association between beauty and nonphysical goodness. However, as our analysis has also implied, the tendency for good looks to be associated with positive qualities may not be very strong overall and may vary considerably in strength, depending on the particular dimension of personality assessed. Predictions for Meta-Analysis Predictions about specific content of physical attractiveness stereotype. Our primary predictions follow from the implicit personality theory framework as well as from the additional assumptions that we introduced about (a) social attention and rewards received by beautiful people, (b) genuine covariation between physical attractiveness and various attributes, (c) media content, and (d) perceivers' inferential linkages. These predictions concern the differential effects that physical attractiveness has on perceivers' inferences about the personality traits that represent the various dimensions of their implicit theories of personality. Although we predict that attractive targets should be assigned more positive attributes than unattractive targets, we hypothesize that this tendency will vary considerably as a function of type of evaluative meaning. Specifically for the reasons we have indicated, information about physical attractiveness should have its strongest impact on inferences about social competence. Bassili (1981) and Dion (1981,1986) would probably agree with this prediction. Because of the likely spillover that we described from social competence to potency
5 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 113 and adjustment, physical attractiveness should affect inferences to these dimensions, albeit somewhat more weakly than inferences to social competence. According to the reasoning we have presented, manipulations of physical attractiveness should have a relatively small effect on inferences about intellectual competence and an even weaker impact on integrity and concern for others. The impact of attractiveness on concern for others may be especially weak given that this category includes traits such as vanity and egotism. As we have already noted, reviewers have implicated such traits in the dark side of the physical attractiveness stereotype (Adams, 1982; Cash & Janda, 1984; Dermer & Thiel, 1975). 2 These predictions suggest that the specific content of the dependent variables used in studies of the physical attractiveness stereotype contributes to observed differences in the strength of the stereotype. Studies that happened to include many dependent variables assessing perceptions of social competence should show a stronger impact of physical attractiveness than studies containing higher proportions of dependent variables selected from the other dimensions of personality. The content of dependent variables should also account for variations within studies in the strength of subjects' inferences from physical appearance to aspects of targets' personalities. Other predictions. Because implicit theories of personality comprise much more than beliefs about attractiveness, our framework raises the issue of whether information that subjects receive about attributes other than physical attractiveness may also account for inconsistencies in the outcomes of studies. In particular, receiving information that conveys attributes of the target other than physical attractiveness may moderate inferences from physical attractiveness to personality traits. In general, the beauty-is-good effect should become smaller as the amount of other information about targets increases. This prediction is consistent, first of all, with Bull and Rumsey's (1988) survey of existing research. It is also congruent with general models describing how people combine items of information into an overall judgment. Specifically, averaging models (see N. H. Anderson, 1974,1981) postulate that the weight or importance of an item of information as a determinant of a judgment becomes smaller as a perceiver takes more items of information into account. Such combinatorial models predict that the impact of physical attractiveness on judgments of personality lessens as more other information is received. In analyzing the probable effect of giving subjects additional information about the target, we must also consider the informativeness or diagnosticity of physical attractiveness compared with other information that subjects may receive about targets. In experiments on the physical attractiveness stereotype, subjects sometimes receive information about targets' personal history and personality, and, in videotaped or live presentations of targets, subjects receive extensive information about targets' personal style. This other information may very commonly be more diagnostic than physical attractiveness in relation to the traits and behaviors that subjects were asked to predict. This argument is analogous to one made in relation to gender stereotypes, namely, that information other than sex may be more strongly linked than sex to the various dimensions of personality that comprise perceivers' implicit theories. When perceivers receive such information, their inferences from sex to personality traits should be weakened. This prediction has been repeatedly confirmed in research showing that perceivers' inferences from sex to personality or behavior are reduced or even reversed by giving subjects other information about targets (e.g, Deaux & Lewis, 1984; Del Boca & Ashmore, 1980; Eagry & Steffen, 1984; Locksley, Borgida, Brekke, & Hepburn, 1980; Locksley, Hepburn, & Ortiz, 1982). The sex of the target is an item of information that subjects in physical attractiveness experiments almost always possess. This fact raises the question of whether the attractiveness stereotype may be stronger for female targets than for male targets. Such a trend would be consistent with reviewers' conclusions that attractiveness is more central to the gender role of women than of men as well as to women's personal identity, self-esteem, and interpersonal outcomes (see Bar-Tal & Saxe, 1976; Rodin, Silberstein, & Striegel-Moore, 1985). Moreover, the media more often portray women than men as decorative and sexual objects (see Courtney & Whipple, 1983; Roberts, 1982). In addition, in television commercials explicit verbal statements linking beauty and good outcomes are more commonly paired with female actors than with male actors (Downs & Harrison, 1985), and viewers of televised advertisements regard the women who are depicted as more concerned with their looks than the men are (Scheibe, 1979). Finally, Jackson, Sullivan, and Rostker (1988) found that women, compared with men, rated physical attractiveness as more important to them and reported engaging in more behaviors to improve their looks. Such findings suggest that physical attractiveness may be more important in perceiving women than in perceiving men. Whether physical attractiveness is more important to perceivers of one sex than the other is not entirely clear. In view of Feingold's (1990a) meta-analysis showing that men place greater value on physical attractiveness than women do, especially when romantic attraction is considered, ft is possible to argue that physical attractiveness could be a more powerful dimension in men's than women's implicit theories of personality. However, the research we review on the physical attractiveness stereotype was not carried out in the context of romantic relationships. Moreover, the question addressed in research on the physical attractiveness stereotype pertains to the meaning inferred from attractiveness cues, not the importance of attractiveness. Men and women may differ in the importance they accord to attractiveness even though they infer similar meaning (e.g., social competence) from attractiveness cues. Particularly in view of evidence that the content of gender stereotypes differs little for male and female subjects (e.g., Deaux & Lewis, 1983,1984; Eagly & Steffen, 1984), we suspect that the physical attractiveness stereotype is widely shared in American culture and is therefore little affected by variation in subject characteristics, including subject sex. To the extent that some studies on the physical attractiveness stereotype used male subjects and 2 One reason we do not predict a negative relation between attractiveness and concern for others is that the findings cited by some narrative reviewers to provide evidence for the dark side of the physical attractiveness stereotype may not be representative of the total domain of findings on egotism and vanity. In addition, our concern for others class of attributes is somewhat broader than egotism and vanity because ft includes the positive facets of concern for others and selflessness.
6 114 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO others used female subjects, our meta-analytic method allows us to approach this issue empirically by examining subjects' sex as a predictor of their inferences about targets' personalities. Sample of Studies Method Computer-based information searches were conducted using the following keywords: physical attractiveness, unattractive, beautiful, ugly, ugliness, facial feature, and physical appearance. These keywords were searched in the following data bases: PsycINFO (Psychological Abstract^, 1967 to 1987; ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), 1966 to 1987; Dissertation Abstracts Online, 1861 to 1987; ABI/ INFORM (a worldwide business and management data base), 1971 to 1987; Sociological Abstracts, 1963 to 1987; Mental Health Abstracts, 1969 to 1987; MEDLINE (Medical Subject Headings), 1966 to 1987;and AARP (American Association of Retired Persons), 1985 to The Social SciSearch data base was also searched to locate articles that cited Dion and associates (1972) or Dermer and Thiel (1975). Each search ended with the latest information available in the summer of We also consulted Cash's (1981) bibliography, which contains almost 500 abstracts obtained through computer-assisted searches using the keyword physical attractiveness. Finally, we searched through the reference lists of all located studies and carefully read numerous review articles (e.g., BerscheidA Walster, 1974), books (eg., Patzer, 1985), and chapters of books (e.g., Adams, 1982). Selecting studies that focus on physical attractiveness stereotype. These search procedures yielded over 600 possibly relevant reports. Given our focus on the physical attractiveness stereotype (and not on the treatment of attractive and unattractive people or their actual characteristics), we initially pared down the sample to include only studies in which subjects rated attractive and unattractive targets on evaluative attributes. The resulting sample was reduced further to include in the final sample only studies that assessed the beauty-is-good stereotype in situations unconstrained by particular role relationships (eg., teacherstudent). To select those studies that assessed the attractiveness stereotype in this relatively pure form, we implemented a number of additional exclusion rules: 1. Studies were included in the sample if the general physical attractiveness of target persons was one of its independent variables. Studies were excluded if they instead examined the impact of specific physical characteristics of target persons, such as height, weight, body type, or disfiguring facial characteristics (e.g., Dibiase & Hjelle, 1968). 2. Studies were included only if physical attractiveness was defined independently of the subjects who rated the targets' characteristics. Attractiveness was in fact manipulated in almost all these studies. In a few of the included studies, high- and low-attractiveness targets were identified only after the subjects had participated, by attractiveness ratings that were independent of subjects' own perceptions of targets' physical attractiveness (e.g., Barnes & Rosemhal. 1985). We excluded studies in which the attractiveness stereotype was defined only in terms of subjects' own perceptions of targets* physical attractiveness; that is, the stereotype was assessed by correlations between subjects' own ratings of targets' physical attractiveness and their ratings of these targets on traits and life outcomes (e.g., P. A. Schneider, Conger, & Firth. 1986). Such studies are causally ambiguous and could illustrate the "what is good is beautiful" principle (Gross & Crofton, 1977) if subjects inferred good looks from positive personality characteristics. 3. Studies were included only if one or more of their dependent variables was a rating of stimulus persons' personality traits (e.g., warmth, intelligence, trustworthiness) or life outcomes (eg., career success, marital success) on a dimension that could be considered evaluative (i.e.. one pole could be identified as more positive than the other). Consistent with our focus on partitioning evaluative meaning into its components, we excluded studies if their dependent measures were not clearly evaluative. For example, we eliminated studies that examined only ratings of masculinity and femininity because they concern a different hypothesis, what is beautiful is sex-typed (e.g. Cash & Janda, 1984), rather than what is beautiful is good. Similarly, we did not consider ascriptions of attitudes or group membership to targets (e.g, being a "feminist"; Jacobson & Koch, 1978) or causal attributions for targets' success and failure (e.g.. Turkat & Dawson, 1976). We also excluded studies if their dependent measures assessed subjects' personal reactions to targets (eg., ratings of whether the subject would like to have the target as a date; Touhey, 1979) rather than the ascription of evaluative characteristics to targets. Because the meta-analysis did not concern the treatment of attractive and unattractive targets, we also excluded studies using only behavioral measures (e.g., shocking a target; Miller, Gillen, Schenker, & Radlove, 1974). In addition, we eliminated the following types of dependent variables reported in studies accepted for the sample: (a) ratings of targets' productions (eg., essays; Bull & Stevens, 1979), (b) ratings of targets' effectiveness in a specific occupational role (eg., counselor; Cash & Kehr, 1978), and (c) ratings of targets' behavior (e.g., audibility of voice; Jackman, 1979). These eliminations reflect our interest in the personality stereotype rather than perceptions of people's products or role enactments. For studies reporting more than one dependent variable, the meta-analysis included only those measures that met these criteria for allowable dependent measures (eg., behavioral measures were excluded).. 4. Consistent with our focus on the physical attractiveness stereotype, we included studies only if, following the precedent of Dion and co-workers' (1972) seminal experiment, subjects judged personality traits and life outcomes of target persons with whom they had no prior role relationship. Because the review is not concerned with the effects of specialized role relationships on the impact of physical attractiveness, we excluded studies in which subjects and targets had an ongoing role relationship, for example, studies of students' ratings of their teachers (e.g., O'Reilly, 1987) or of therapists' ratings of their patients (eg., Nordholm, 1980). We also excluded studies in which subjects roleplayed a relationship with one or more targets, for example, studies in which subjects were instructed to rate a counselor from the perspective of a client (e.g., Cash & Kehr, 1978). In addition, studies were deleted if the target persons were described as paired by means of a role relationship (eg., Hartnett & Secord's, 1983, targets were described as married couples). 5. Several other criteria excluded studies examining specialized types of target persons. Although studies presenting targets in specific job categories (eg., counselor) were included as long as the subjects were not in an actual or hypothetical role relationship with these targets, studies were eliminated if the targets were mentally ill (eg., mental hospital patients in the Martin, Friedmeyer, & Moore, 1977, study), victimized (eg., rape victims in the Jacobson & Popovich, 1983, study), or specialized in certain other ways (eg., described as having had premarital sexual intercourse in the Hocking, Walker, & Fink, 1982, study). Studies with targets of these types were excluded because physical attractiveness would probably have specialized implications in these contexts (e.g, it would not imply good social skills in mentally ill targets; it might have atypical moral and sexual implications for rape victims or unmarried persons described as sexually active). 6. To confine our review to the presumably fully developed stereotype among late adolescents and adults, studies were included only if the subjects (and targets) were over the age of 14 years. The developmental aspects of physical attractiveness stereotyping could well be the object of a separate meta-analysis. 7. Finally, numerous studies were excluded because they lacked sufficient information for the computation of at least one effect size (eg.,
7 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 115 R. Anderson &Nida, 1978). Such reports either lacked statistical detail or presented statistical information in a form that does not allow the computation of effect sizes (e.g., a multivariate analysis of variance [MANOVA]; a regression with physical attractiveness included along with other predictors). In summary, our selection criteria narrowed our sample to studies that examined the effects that targets' general physical attractiveness has on perceivers' inferences about evaluative personal attributes in settings that eliminate specialized roles and personal relationships linking perceivers and targets. The resulting sample (see Appendix) consisted of 69 documents reporting 76 studies. 3 Variables Coded From Each Study The following information was coded from each report: (a) date of publication; (b) number of observations;' (c) number of judgments aggregated into each observation underlying the study-level effect sizes; 5 (d) publication form (journal article, dissertation or unpublished document); (e) source of subject population (college undergraduates, other); (f) nationality of subject population (American, Canadian); (g) sex of subjects (male, female, male and female, unknown); (h) instructional set (accuracy, i.e., of subject's judgment in relation to a presumed criterion [see Dion et al., 1972], impression formation, other, none or unclear); (i) type of attractiveness variation (attractive and unattractive targets selected, changed appearance of same target, other);' (j) evidence that attractiveness varied as intended (preselection judgments, postexperimental ratings, both, none); (k) control for confounds between attractiveness and other attributes of targets (multiple targets at each attractiveness level, changed appearance of same target, other controls, no such control or unknown); (1) within versus between variation of attractiveness (within, between); (m) stimulus modality (photograph, videotape, live, written description, other or more than one); (n) part of target's body viewed (face, head and shoulders, full body, unclear, mixed or irrelevant); (o) stimuli in color (yes, no, unknown, mixed or irrelevant); (p) source of stimuli (college yearbook, researcher took own photographs or videotapes, other, unknown, irrelevant or more than one); (q) basis of stimuli selection (means and variances of judges' ratings, means of judges' ratings, consensual meaning of words, unknown or intuitive, mixed or irrelevant); (r) sex of targets (male, female, male and female); (s) race of targets (whites only, other exclusion, not restricted, unknown, mixed or irrelevant); (t) restrictions on target's appearance (eyeglasses excluded, other exclusion, more than one exclusion, no or unknown exclusion or appearance manipulated, mixed or irrelevant); (u) presence of individuating information along with attractiveness information (present, absent); (v) independent variables other than physical attractiveness in design, regardless of whether they provided individuating information (yes, no); and (w) unusual features of statistical analysis (yes, no). The categories we listed for some of these variables were simplified from an initially more detailed set because (a) some of these more detailed categories had few or no entries and (b) prediction of the effect sizes was not improved by the more detailed categories. The variables for which the initial coding was more detailed are the following: publication form, instructional set, type of attractiveness variation, control for confounds, and presence of individuating information. These variables were independently coded by Alice H. Eagly and Mona G. Makhijani, with a median agreement of 95% (estimated * [kappa] =.90); "other independent variables in design" yielded the lowest agreement: 85% If =.39). Disagreements were resolved by dis- Computation and Analysis of Effect Sizes The effect size calculated is g, the difference between the means of two groups, divided by the relevant standard deviation. 7 The sign of the difference was positive when attractive targets were rated more favorably than unattractive targets and negative when unattractive targets were rated more favorably. The computation of g was based on (a) means and standard deviations or error terms for 446 effect sizes, (b) Fs and K for 110 effect sizes, (c) correlations or chi-squares for 26, and (d) level p values (e.g, p <.05) for 14. Thus, 596 effect sizes were computed. To reduce computational error, these effect sizes were calculated independently by Alice H. Eagly and Mona G. Makhijani. When the data for a study were reported separately for male and female targets, effect sizes were calculated separately for each sex. These additional reports, separated by sex of target, supplemented the reports combined over sex of target, which were used in most analyses. The 596 effect sizes that we computed reported data on 104 different individual rating scales as well as on 100 different composite measures that authors of the studies had computed by aggregating two or more ratings. To facilitate the analysis of these extremely diverse measures, we aggregated them in various ways before analyzing them. To provide a single measure for each study, thus creating effect sizes that satisfy the independence assumption of meta-analytic statistics (Hedges & Olkin, 1985), we computed a single effect size for each study, combining all separately calculated effect sizes. This study-level effect size was calculated using Rosenthal and Rubin's (1986) suggested formula and assum- 3 A list of the studies excluded by these criteria is available from either Alice H. Eagly or Richard D. Ashmore. 4 The number of observations is the n taken into account by the statistical analysis for the effects of physical attractiveness. 5 Study-level effect sizes were aggregated across all of the dependent variables (see Computation and Analysis of Effect Sizes). For example, each observation might represent a subject's ratings of 4 target persons on 10 items, for a total of 40 judgments. To the extent that measures were based on multiple judgments, they should yield more reliable estimates of the physical attractiveness stereotype, in the manner that the number of items in a test relates to the reliability of the total test (e.g, Ghiselli, 1964). 6 When a study's design included more than two levels of attractiveness, we compared only the highest and lowest levels, if the report was sufficient to yield this comparison. This rule maximized comparability of effect sizes across the studies because the typical study presented targets preselected to be extremely attractive and extremely unattractive. The following variations were coded as "other" but included as separate categories in preliminary analyses: high versus medium (when only these conditions were present in experiment), changed verbal description, median split on attractiveness, and attractiveness treated as a continuous variable. 7 When physical attractiveness was a between-subjects variable, this standard deviation was computed separately within the high- and lowattractiveness conditions and pooled. When physical attractiveness was a within-subjects variable, the standard deviation was the standard deviation of the differences between the paired observations. These standard deviations were estimated, whenever possible, only from the portion of each study's data entering into the effect size. Some statisticians have recommended that, when estimating standard deviations from the mean square error of an ANOVA, meta-analysts reconstitute this error term by adding into the sum of squares error all other sums of squares except that for the independent variable of interest (see Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981; Hedges & Becker, 1986). This strategy was not chosen for this meta-analysis because physical attractiveness was crossed with manipulated variables that in some experiments were quite powerful. Consequently, adding sums of squares for manipulated variables to the sum of squares error would have had differing impact on these error terms across the studies. In addition, statistical information was typically not extensive enough to allow us to reconstitute the error terms.
8 116 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO ing that the correlation between measures was.48. This correlation was estimated by averaging the correlations between dependent variables (a) reported in the studies or (b) derived from coefficient alphas reported for multiple-kern dependent variables used in the metaanalysis. Categorization of dependent variables. To enable us to test our hypothesis that physical attractiveness has more impact on some types of evaluative beliefs than others, we also classified each study's variables into the following six categories: (a) social competence, including interpersonal skills and traits (sociable, fun loving) and successful outcomes of such skills (popular, likable); (b) intellectual competence, including intellectual ability (intelligent, skillful), rational mental style (rational, scientific), high task motivation (ambitious, hard working), and successful outcomes of task endeavors (receiving good grades, achieving career success); (c) concern for others, including social sensitivity (sensitive, empathic), nurturance (compassionate, generous), and lack of egotism (modest, not egotistic); (d) integrity, including honesty (trustworthy, honest) and respect for norms (faithfulness to spouse); (e) adjustment, including good mental health (normal, well adjusted), happiness (satisfied, happy), high self-esteem (confident, positive selfregard), and well-being (maturity, good health); and (f) potency including power (strong, self-assertive) and dominance (dominant, acting as leader). A composite measure reported in a study was placed into one of these categories only if 60% or more of its component ratings fit into the category. In addition, some measures were placed into one of two other categories. The first of these categories is general evaluation, which was chosen for single-item measures whose evaluative meaning was completely nonspecific (e.g., good) and for composite measures whose component scales fit two or more of our specific categories and failed to attain the criterion of at least 60% fitting any one category. The second of these additional categories is other, which was chosen for measures that neither fit into any of the six specific categories nor qualified as measures of general evaluation. The measures from a study were thus placed into one or more of these eight categories. This classification was accomplished by the four authors' independent categorizations of the measures; three of the four authors placed 80% of the single-item dependent variables and 72% of composite measures in the same category. Disagreements were resolved by discussion between Richard D. Ashmore and Laura C. Longo. The 596 effect sizes calculated from the studies' reported findings were aggregated into category-level effect sizes for each study for as many of the eight categories as the study represented. These aggregations were calculated under the assumption that the correlation between measures placed in the same category was.48. Each study thus yielded, in addition to a study-level effect size, one or more of these eight category-level effect sizes. Analysis of effect sizes. The gs were converted to ds by correcting them for bias (i.e., g's overestimate of the population effect size, which occurs especially for small samples; see Hedges, 1981; Hedges & Olkin, 1985). Then the study outcomes were combined by averaging thet/s. To determine whether each set of ds shared a common effect size (i.e., was consistent across the studies), we calculated a homogeneity statistic, Q, which has an approximate chi-square distribution with k 1 degrees of freedom, where k is the number of effect sizes (Hedges, 1981; Hedges & Olkin, 1985). In the absence of homogeneity, we accounted for variability in heterogeneous effect sizes by relating them to the attributes of the studies. To determine the relation between these study characteristics and the magnitude of the effect sizes, both categorical and continuous models were tested (Hedges, 1982a, 1982b; Hedges & Olkin, 1985). Categorical models, which are analogous to ANOVAs, may show that heterogeneous effect sizes are homogeneous within the subgroups established by dividing studies into classes based on study characteristics. The techniques for calculating categorical models provide a betweenclasses effect (analogous to a main effect in an ANOVA) and a test of the homogeneity of the effect sizes within each class. The between-classes effect is estimated by Q B, which has an approximate chi-square distribution with p 1 degrees of freedom, where pis the number of classes. The homogeneity of the effect sizes within each class is estimated by <2w, which has an approximate chi-square distribution with m - \ degrees of freedom, where m is the number of effect sizes in the class. The tables reporting tests of categorical models also include the mean weighted effect size for each class, calculated with each effect size weighted by the reciprocal of its variance, and an indication of whether this mean differed significantly from the 0.00 value that indicates exactly no effect of physical attractiveness. The continuous models are least squares simple linear regressions, calculated with each effect size weighted by the reciprocal of its variance. Each such model yields a test of the significance of a predictor as well as a test of model specification, which evaluates whether significant systematic variation remains unexplained in the regression model (Hedges, 1982b; Hedges & Olkin, 1985). The sum of squares error statistic, Q Er which provides this test of model specification, has an approximate chi-square distribution with k - p -1 degrees of freedom, where k is the number of effect sizes and p is the number of predictors (not including the intercept). If correctly specified models are not achieved when implementing continuous models (or homogeneity is not achieved within the classes when implementing categorical models), the results of these analyses cannot be interpreted as confidently as they would otherwise be. As a supplementary analysis, we attained homogeneity by identifying outliers among the effect sizes and sequentially removing those that reduced the homogeneity statistic by the largest amount (see Hedges & Olkin, 1985). Using such a procedure, Hedges (1987) found for several meta-analyses on psychological topics that the removal of up to 20% of the outliers in a group of heterogeneous effect sizes usually resulted in a high degree of homogeneity. Inspection of the percentage of effect sizes removed to attain homogeneity allows one to determine whether the effect sizes are homogeneous aside from the presence of relatively few aberrant values. The mean attained after removal of such outliers may better represent the distribution of effect sizes than would the mean based on all of the effect sizes. Results Characteristics of the Studies Before considering the findings reported in research on the physical attractiveness stereotype, we examined the characteristics of the studies from which conclusions about this research will be drawn. Table 1 shows many of these study characteristics. As shown by the central tendencies of the characteristics listed in Table 1, studies (a) were published relatively recently, (b) were published as journal articles, (c) involved a moderate number of observations, and (d) aggregated a moderate number of judgments into each observation. The studies used subjects who were college undergraduates, Americans, and both male and female. In addition, the studies generally (a) established an impression-formation instructional set; (b) compared perceptions of targets selected to be attractive and unattractive; (c) presented both preselection and postexperimental evidence that attractiveness varied as intended; (d) controlled confounds by means of multiple targets at each attractiveness level, within each level of target sex; (e) varied attractiveness on a betweensubjects basis; (f) presented targets by means of photographs or
9 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 117 Table 1 Summary of Study Characteristics Variable and class Value Variable and class Value Median publication year Publication form Journal article Dissertation or unpublished document Median number of observations Median number of judgments aggregated into each observation Source of subject population College undergraduates Other Stimulus modality Photograph or slide Videotape Live Written description Other or more than one Part of target's body viewed Face Head and shoulders Full body Unclear Mixed or irrelevant I Nationality of subjects American Canadian Sex of subjects Male Female Male and female Unknown Instructional set Accuracy Impression formation Other None or unclear Type of attractiveness variation Attractive and unattractive targets selected Changed appearance of same target Other Evidence that attractiveness varied as intended Preselection judgments Postexperimental ratings Both None Control for confounds Multiple targets Changed appearance of same target Other controls' No such control or unknown Within versus between variation of attractiveness Within Between Stimuli in color Yes No Unknown Mixed or irrelevant Source of stimuli College yearbook Researcher took own photographs or videotapes Other Unknown Irrelevant or more than one Basis of stimuli selection Means and variances of judges' ratings Means of judges' ratings Consensual meaning of words Unknown or intuitive Mixed or irrelevant Sex of targets Male Female Male and female Race of targets Whites only Other exclusion Not restricted Unknown Mixed or irrelevant Restrictions on target's appearance Eyeglasses excluded Other exclusion More than one exclusion No or unknown exclusion or appearance changed Mixed or irrelevant Presence of individuating information Present Absent Note. For categorical variables, numbers in tables represent frequencies of reports in each class. * Includes changed written description and use of both multiple targets and changed appearance in same study slides; (g) used head-and-shoulders poses of targets; (h) did not mention whether stimuli were presented in color or black and white; (i) used college yearbook photographs, or photographs or videotapes taken by the researcher, or did not mention the source of stimuli; (j) selected stimuli based on means and variances of judges' ratings or on means only; (k) used female targets only or both male and female targets; (1) did not report on the race of the targets; (m) did not report on or had no restric-
10 118 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO tions on targets' appearance or used targets whose appearance was changed; and (n) presented individuating information along with the attractiveness information. women. This stereotype was inconsistent in magnitude across the studies and somewhat smaller once outlying effect sizes were deleted. Summary of Study-Level Effect Sizes The summary of the study-level effect sizes given in Table 2 allows one to determine whether more favorable characteristics were ascribed to attractive individuals than to unattractive individuals based on the available reports. An overall difference in the stereotypic direction is shown by a positive mean effect size that differed significantly from the 0.00 value that indicates exactly no difference (i*, by a confidence interval that did not include 0.00). As expected, evaluations were more favorable for attractive targets than for unattractive targets, as shown by the weighted mean of the effect sizes 8 as well as by the unweighted mean and the median. In addition, a large proportion (.91) of these study-level effect sizes favored the attractive targets over the unattractive targets. This proportion differed significantly from.50, the proportion expected under the null hypothesis (/K.001). As also shown in Table 2, the effect sizes were not homogeneous, and homogeneity was not attained until a relatively large proportion of the effect sizes C33) was removed. The removal of outliers produced a somewhat smaller weighted mean that also differed significantly from The various indexes of the central tendency of the effect sizes thus substantiate the existence of an attractiveness stereotype, as documented by the ascription of more favorable characteristics to attractive men and women than to unattractive men and Table 2 Summary of Study-Level Effect Sizes Criterion Including outliers Value «76 Mean weighted effect size (dj %CIforrf /0.62 Homogeneity (Q) of effect sizes comprising rf + " * Mean effect size (mean d) % CI for mean d 0.50/0.72 Median effect size 0.57 Differences favoring attractive targets" 69/76 (.91) Excluding outliers n n removed outliers Mean weighted effect size (d + ) 95% CI for d+ Homogeneity (Q) of effect sizes comprising rf (.33) / Note. Effect sizes are positive for more favorable evaluation of attractive than unattractive targets and negative for more favorable evaluation of unattractive targets. CI = confidence interval. " Effect sizes were weighted by the reciprocal of the variance. b Significance indicates rejection of the hypothesis of homogeneity. Frequencies are the number of study-level effect sizes favoring the more attractive targets divided by the total number of effect sizes. The proportion appears in parentheses. Physical Attractiveness Stereotype and Type of Attributes Ascribed to Targets The categorical model in Table 3 tests our prediction that the strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype depends on the particular dimension of meaning that was assessed. This model produced a highly significant between-classes effect. As expected, the largest mean effect size was produced for ratings of social competence and the smallest effect sizes for concern for others and integrity. Ratings on the remaining three specific dimensions of meaning (intellectual competence, adjustment, potency) produced effect sizes that were in between these classes of effect sizes. Consistent with this pattern, the general evaluation category produced effect sizes in the middle range of the means for the six specific types of meaning, as did the category labeled other, which contained an extremely diverse set of ratings that did not fit into the six specific categories that we established. We evaluated the significance of the differences between these classes of effect sizes by means of post hoc comparisons, which are represented by the subscripts attached to the mean effect sizes given in Table 3 (see Hedges & Becker, 1986; Hedges & Olkin, 1985).' Relations Between Other Study Attributes and the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype The relations between other study attributes and the physical attractiveness stereotype were evaluated on the study-level effect sizes. The categorical models that produced significant between-classes effects are given in Table 4. The first model indicates a significant between-classes effect for publication form; journal articles produced a stronger stereotype than dissertations and unpublished articles. The second model shows a significant effect for instructional set; the accuracy set yielded a weaker stereotype. Given Dion's (1981,1986) logic that the accuracy set would reduce stereotyping and encourage careful thinking about targets' personal characteristics, a priori comparisons between the accuracy class of effect sizes and the three other classes seem appropriate. By such comparisons, the stereotype was significantly weaker with the accuracy set than each of the other three sets (ps <.05). Although the physical attractiveness stereotype related to the type of method researchers used to vary attractiveness, post hoc contrasts show only that the quite diverse category of other manipulations produced a stronger stereotype than the more typical manipulation that compared stimuli preselected to be high or low in attractiveness (p <.001). The type of control that researchers established for confounds of the physical attractive- * The weighted means were computed by weighting each effect size by the reciprocal of its variance (Hedges & Olkin, 1985), a procedure that gives more weight to effect sizes that are more reliably estimated. 9 Although our dimensions differed somewhat from those used by Feingold (1990b), the ordering of the dimensions was substantially similar.
11 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 119 Table3 Categorical Model for Type of Attributes Ascribed to Targets Attribute type Between-classes effect (G>) n Mean weighted efiect size (d, + ) Lower 95% CI for <k Upper Homogeneity within each class (G^ Social competence Adjustment Potency Intellectual competence Integrity Concern for others General evaluation Other * J 0.49^ 0.46 t 0.13, 0.01, 0.57^ 0.54^ * * 36.67* * 80.84* * * * Note. Effect sizes are positive for more favorable evaluation of attractive than unattractive targets and negative for more favorable evaluation of unattractive targets. Differences between means that do not have a subscript in common are significant at the.05 level or beyond. CI = confidence interval. * Significance indicates rejection of the hypothesis of homogeneity. *p<.001. ness variable also produced a significant between-classes effect. Yet, using post hoc contrasts, the only significant comparison among the four classes showed that the stereotype was stronger when no control was used or when the nature of any controls was unknown than it was when the typical multiple-target technique was used (p <.05). In addition, consistent with the greater control of extraneous variables and the more precise error term in within-subjects designs, within-subjects variations of attractiveness produced a stronger stereotype than between-subjects variations. As also shown in Table 4, several attributes of the target persons affected the strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype. The use of color (vs. black and white) stimuli related significantly to the effect sizes. Post hoc comparisons showed that smaller efiect sizes were produced by stimuli that were known to be black and white than by stimuli that were in color (p <.005) or for which color was unknown (p <.001). The next model given in Table 4 failed to confirm our hypothesis that the physical attractiveness stereotype is stronger for female targets than for male targets. This hypothesis was tested on the 98 effect sizes produced when studies reporting separate data for male and female targets were represented by these separate effect sizes and the other studies were represented by study-level effect sizes. Although the variable of target sex produced a significant categorical model, the attractiveness stereotype was stronger for reports combined over male and female targets (i.e, reports that could not be partitioned by sex of target) than for reports on either male targets (p <.01) or female targets (p <.001). Contrary to hypothesis, the stereotype did not differ for male and female targets. Moreover, we calculated the sex-oftarget model separately within each of the dimensions shown in Table 3 and obtained no evidence of a stronger stereotype for female than male targets within any of these dimensions. Also, sex of subjects did not produce a significant model. Finally, consistent with our hypothesis that individuating information would attenuate inferences made on the basis of physical attractiveness, the stereotype was weaker when such information was present rather than absent. The number of judgments aggregated into each observation was the only continuous variable that produced a significant model. Thus, the physical attractiveness stereotype was stronger when a greater number of judgments (i., items) were aggregated into each of the observations underlying the studylevel effect sizes (b = , tf =.11, p <.025; Q E  = , p <.001). This analysis raises the question of whether the various dimensions of evaluative meaning shown in Table 3 differed with respect to the number of judgments aggregated into each observation. Although some differences were observed, they showed no relation to the strength of the evaluative stereotype (Le, to the means shown in Table 3). Discussion Strength of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype Although the consensus among social psychologists has been that the beauty-is-good stereotype is extremely strong and robust, our implicit personality theory framework led us to expect that the tendency for people to ascribe more favorable personal attributes to attractive targets than to unattractive targets would be somewhat modest in size and quite variable across studies. Relevant to the overall magnitude of the physical attractiveness stereotype are the several measures of efiect size central tendency reported in Table 2. These measures varied from a high of 0.61 for the unweighted mean to a low of 0.49 for the weighted mean with outliers excluded. These figures indicate approximately one-half standard deviation in the direction of more positive personality traits and life outcomes ascribed to attractive compared with unattractive targets. Methodological features, both of our meta-analysis and of the research paradigms of the studies we reviewed, should be taken into account in interpreting the magnitude of the effect sizes we obtained. Among the important features of our metaanalytic methods are the rules we followed for including studies in the present sample. In particular, studies were included only if we could compute at least one effect size, and among the
12 120 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO Table 4 Categorical Models on Study-Level Effect Sizes Variable and class Between-classes effect (Q,) «Mean weighted effect size (d H ) 95% CI for rf, + Lower Upper Homogeneity within each class (Gw,)' Publication form Journal article Dissertation or unpublished document 23.98*** *** *** Instructional set Accuracy Impression formation Other None or unclear 9.20* *** *** 21.90** 35.36*** Type of attractiveness variation Attractive and unattractive targets selected Changed appearance of same target Other 16.03*** *** 23.14** 51.16*** Control for confounds Multiple targets Changed appearance of same target Other controls No control or unknown 10.18** *** 23.14** ** Within versus between variation of attractiveness Within Between 13.03*** *** *** Stimuli in color" Yes No Unknown 23.15*** *** *** *** Sex of targets Male Female Both 24.23*** *** *** 52.80*** Presence of individuating information Present Absent 36.63*** *** *** Note. Effect sizes are positive for more favorable evaluation of attractive than unattractive targets and negative for more favorable evaluation of unattractive targets. Cl = confidence interval. "Significance indicates rejection of the hypothesis of homogeneity. b The category "mixed or irrelevant* 1 (n = 2) was omitted from this analysis. *p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001. included studies, only effect sizes that we could compute entered into our aggregations. Although some meta-analysts have assigned the value of 0.00 to unknown effect sizes, we were reluctant to compromise the accuracy of our data in this way, especially in view of the fact that our computed effect sizes were then aggregated into study-level effect sizes. Nonetheless, our procedure probably increased the magnitude of our average effect sizes because of the tendency for minimally reported findings to be nonsignificant and generally relatively small. An additional consideration in evaluating meta-analytic methods is the extent to which the magnitude of the physical attractiveness stereotype may have been exaggerated in our review because of a publication bias in favor of significant findings (Greenwald, 1975; Lane & Dunlap, 1978). Indeed, in our data the effect sizes were larger in published than unpublished research (see Table 4), a typical result in meta-analyses (see Glass et al., 1981). Although publication bias must therefore be considered an influence, our inclusion of all available unpublished findings diluted the impact of this bias on our aggregated effect sizes. Moreover, the mean effect size in the unpublished studies remained substantial (see Table 4). One of the methodological features of physical attractiveness studies relevant to interpreting the magnitude of our effect sizes is the degree to which extraneous variables were controlled in typical experiments. Such control reduces the standard deviations that serve as the denominator of the effect sizes. Compared with many other areas of research in social and personality psychology (e.g., prosocial and antisocial behavior, group process), research on the physical attractiveness stereotype is relatively controlled, because carefully selected target stimuli are presented to subjects in a laboratory setting that usually precludes social interaction between the subjects and targets. In addition, because dependent variables that aggregate subjects' responses ordinarily strengthen effects (Abelson, 1985; Ajzen,
13 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE ), the fact that the observations analyzed in the studies we reviewed typically represented a moderate number of judgments should also be taken into account (see Table 1). Thus, two important methodological features of this research literature the relatively high level of experimental control and the moderate amount of aggregation of responses favored the production of large effect sizes. Several additional considerations are relevant to evaluating the magnitude of the average ds produced by our meta-analysis (see Eagly, 1987). One set of guidelines for the d metric has been suggested by Cohen (1977), who proposed that 0.20 can be described as small, 0.50 as medium, and 0.80 as large. Cohen based these standards on his impressions of effect sizes in the behavioral sciences and maintained that phenomena represented by medium effect sizes would ordinarily be noticed in daily life. Cohen's characterization of medium effect sizes as discriminable is consistent with the transformation of our mean weighted effect size of 0.58 into the metric of Rosenthal and Rubin's (1982) binomial effect-size display. By this transformation, 64% of attractive people but only 36% of unattractive people were perceived as having above-average personalities. This difference of 28% suggests a substantial tendency, despite the fact that a d of 0.58 can be interpreted as signifying that only 8% of the variability in subjects' inferences about targets' personalities was explained by their physical attractiveness. Another basis for interpreting the average effect sizes for the physical attractiveness stereotype is to compare them with average effect sizes typically produced by meta-analyses on other hypotheses in social and personality psychology. Eagly's (1987) overview of such effect sizes suggested that they ranged from roughly 0.00 to For example, mean </s for sex differences in social behavior ranged from a low of 0.13 for helping behavior to a high of 1.19 for the use of pause fillers in vocal behavior. Another such comparative standard is provided by Cooper and Findley's (1982) computation of a mean d of 0.92 for the findings cited in a sample of social psychology textbooks. 10 Because studies cited in textbooks are likely to provide the best demonstrations of those phenomena that social psychologists believe are genuine, this figure no doubt considerably overestimates the strength of typical findings for these phenomena. In summary, the magnitude of the physical attractiveness stereotype in our meta-analytic findings was enhanced by (a) our exclusion of studies for which we could not calculate an effect size, (b) an apparent publication bias in favor of positive findings, and (c) experimental designs featuring a high degree of experimental control and moderate aggregation of judgments. In view of these considerations as well as the numeric guidelines commonly used for evaluating the magnitude of effect sizes, the beauty-is-good effect should be considered moderate in magnitude but certainly not extremely strong. Finally, in relation to the robustness of the beauty-is-good stereotype, it is worth commenting on the consistency of the findings across the studies. The direction of the effect proved quite consistent, as shown by the fact that 91% of the study-level effect sizes favored the attractive targets (see Table 2). Nonetheless, as shown by the large value of the Q statistic (see Table 2), the findings were quite inconsistent in magnitude. Moreover, to achieve a homogeneous set of findings, 33% of the study-level effect sizes had to be removed. This figure compares with the 20% or less of effect sizes that Hedges (1987) removed to attain homogeneity among studies on several diverse psychological hypotheses. Furthermore, other recent meta-analyses on social psychological topics have achieved homogeneity by removal of smaller proportions of effect sizes than the 33% removed in the present review (see Eagly & Johnson, 1990; Johnson & Eagly, 1989). Thus, the effect sizes produced by studies on the physical attractiveness stereotype should be viewed as quite inconsistent in magnitude. Impact of Type of Attributes on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype Congruent with our hypotheses, which built on the exceptions and qualifications noted in some narrative reviews (e.g., Adams, 1982; Alley & Hildebrandt, 1988; Bassili, 1981; Bull & Rumsey, 1988; Cash & Janda, 1984; Dermer & Thiel, 1975; Dion, 1981, 1986), there was considerable variation in the strength of the beauty-is-good effect from study to study and from measure to measure within studies. As expected, some of this variation was explained by the type of dependent variable researchers had used. The fact that physical attractiveness had its strongest impact on social competence supports our contention that the core of the physical attractiveness stereotype is sociability, popularity, and similar attributes. Other evaluative dimensions varied considerably in how closely they were psychologically connected to good looks versus bad looks. Physical attractiveness had little impact on integrity and concern for others; potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence showed intermediate impact. In none of our categories of evaluative meaning were attractive people perceived less favorably than unattractive people, although attractive people possessed no advantage in our concern for others class. Because the argument that the attractiveness stereotype has a dark side (e.g. Cash & Janda, 1984; Dermer & Thiel, 1975) suggests that attractive people are perceived to be more likely than unattractive people to possess the negative attributes of vanity and selfishness, we performed separate analyses to determine whether ratings of modesty versus vanity («= 6) or egotism versus selflessness (n = 6) two components of our concern for others class would show significant reversals of the usual tendency to ascribe more favorable qualities to beautiful people. Indeed, both means differed significantly from 0.00 in the predicted negative direction: d+ 0.67, CI = -0.51/-0.84 for modesty versus vanity; d< = -0.25, CI = 0.08/-0.41 for egotism versus selflessness. However, the mean for egotism became positive when one highly negative outlying effect size was removed. Thus, we conclude only that attractive people are perceived more negatively than unattractive people in one respect: They are thought to be more vain and less modest. The present results, then, serve to clarify the dark side of the physical attractiveness stereotype. It includes 10 This mean effect size aggregates comparisons involving (tests, F tests, and correlation coefficients.
14 122 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHUANI, AND LONGO vanity but perhaps not the apparently similar attribute of egotism." The heterogeneity of the attractiveness stereotype across dimensions of evaluative meaning has important implications for interpreting research in this area. These meta-analytic findings raise questions about the common practice of aggregating subjects' responses into composite indexes. To take the Social Desirability Index used by Dion and her collaborators (Dion et al, 1972) as an example, we placed 7 of the 14 items in this composite in our social competence category, 3 in potency, 3 in concern for others, and 1 in other. Because this composite emphasized social competence, its distribution of items across the dimensions of personality resulted in a relatively strong stereotype, a much stronger stereotype than would have been obtained by choosing, for example, a large number of items representing integrity and concern for others. Our meta-analytic results thus suggest that researchers should select items systematically by designing indexes that represent the content-specific dimensions of subjects' implicit theories of personality. Aggregate measures consisting of items that were selected through more arbitrary methods produce unreliable estimates of the strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype and obscure the subtleties of people's stereotypic thinking about looks. Impact of Other Variables on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype Individuating information. The implicit personality theory framework guiding the present analysis also suggested that the strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype would be affected by information about the targets in addition to their physical attractiveness. As predicted, the beauty-is-good effect was weaker when subjects received individuating information along with attractiveness cues. This finding, which is consistent with the prior research we noted early in this article, suggests that the evaluative implications of looks may be somewhat weak in many natural settings in which perceivers have extensive information about other people in addition to their physical appearance. Looks should thus be relatively less important in perceptions of friends, acquaintances, family members, and coworkers than in perceptions of strangers. Sex of targets. The prediction that the attractiveness stereotype is stronger for female targets than for male targets was not supported. 12 In seeking to explain why, we offer two quite different lines of reasoning. One possibility is that this hypothesis may be valid under circumstances not present in the research paradigms represented in this meta-analysis. In particular, the greater weight of attractiveness in perceivers' judgments of women may occur in the context of face-to-face interaction or, more generauy, in situations in which perceivers are likely to interact with targets. If women take more interest in and responsibility for the interpersonal aspects of daily experience (see Eagly, 1987; Eagly & Wood, in press), physical attractiveness may have more impact on judgments of women than men in natural settings where people engage in social interaction, and social competence therefore has important consequences. The greater importance of attractiveness to perceptions of women may not be revealed in the typical stereotype study, in which subjects merely rate photographs of targets whom they do not expect to meet. A second, more radical interpretation is that our hypothesis about the greater weight of attractiveness in judgments of women is incorrect. If so, how can this conclusion be reconciled with research suggesting that physical attractiveness is more important to the female gender role than to the male gender role and to women's self-esteem and personal identity (see summary presented early in this article)? To resolve this apparent paradox, we suggest framing the effects of physical attractiveness in terms of two stages: (a) In a first stage, perceivers infer from appearance cues that targets have certain personality characteristics; and (b) in a second stage, the implications of these inferences unfold during social interaction. In the first stage, physical attractiveness may cause perceivers to draw the same conclusions about women's and menls personalities (iff., it conveys the same information about social competence and other attributes). However, in the second stage, conclusions based on attractiveness may be more consequential for women than men. Specifically, as social interaction proceeds, the gains in perceived social competence enjoyed by good-looking people may have more important consequences for women because the structuring of interaction by means of gender roles assigns women more responsibility for the maintenance of positive and friendly relationships (see Eagly, 1987). Therefore, women may work harder to be perceived as socially competent, accounting for women's greater interest in their personal appearance and the greater centrality of looks in their selfconcepts. Also if marriage and family relationships are more central to women than men (see Wood, Rhodes, & Whelan, 1989), the implications of looks for heterosexual attraction may be more important to women than men. Within- versus between-subjects manipulation of attractiveness. The finding that the attractiveness stereotype was stronger for within-subjects manipulations than for betweensubjects manipulations of appearance is amenable to two possible explanations. One interpretation is that the within-subjects procedure provides a more precise error term because subjects served as their own controls (see also footnote 7). A second interpretation is that the context in which stimuli are perceived in within-subjects experiments namelji exposure to targets of widely differing levels of physical attractiveness may induce a perceptual contrast effect whereby attractive targets are seen as more attractive and unattractive targets as less attractive than they would otherwise be. Such contrast effects are well documented in research on judgments of physical attractiveness (see Patzer, 1985, for a summary). The more extreme judgments of attractiveness that result from such a contrast effect could induce more extreme judgments of personality. Color versus black-and-white stimuli. Another finding of our " Our conclusion about egotism is somewhat tentative because five of the six egotism effect sizes were based on composite measures of egotism that included some attributes in addition to egotism and its synonyms. 12 Yet Feingold (1990b) showed that physical attractiveness led to stronger inferences of sexual warmth for female targets than for male targets.
15 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 123 meta-analysis is that the beauty-is-good effect was more pronounced for color stimuli than for black-and-white stimuli. Interpretation of this finding must remain tentative because, as a result of the correlational nature of meta-analytic findings, the color versus black-and-white aspect of the stimuli was confounded to some extent with other features of the experiments (e.g., the studies with color stimuli encompassed all of those with face-to-face interaction). Nonetheless, if we assume that color stimuli are more vivid than black-and-white photographs, this finding can be interpreted in terms of the greater psychological impact of vivid (vs. pallid) stimuli. Vivid information is presumed to attract and hold people's attention because it is, for example, concrete and imagery provoking, emotionally interesting, or proximal in a sensory, temporal, or spatial way (Nisbett & Ross, 1980). Although empirical support for the hypothesis that vividly presented information has more impact on judgments than pallid information has been mixed, many of the failures to confirm vividness hypotheses may have been due to researchers' failures to specify exactly what was made vivid by their particular vividness manipulations (see Chaiken & Eagly, 1983; Taylor & Thompson, 1982). This ambiguity was for the most part not present in this research because photographs were typically presented, making the physical appearance of the target vivid. Thus, the typical experimental paradigm for research on the physical attractiveness stereotype may be especially well adapted to demonstrating vividness effects, and primary research within this paradigm might well explore these effects. Number of judgments aggregated into dependent variable. The finding that the beauty-is-good effect was stronger when a larger number of judgments was aggregated into the dependent variable is explicable in terms of ordinary principles of reliability and aggregation: Dependent variables show stronger relations to appropriate predictors to the extent that measures of these variables are more reliable because they are based on aggregations of correlated responses (e.g., Ajzen, 1988). This relation between the strength of findings and response aggregation has been obtained in other meta-analyses (Eagly & Johnson, 1990; Eagly & Steffen, 1986), and it is appropriate to routinely track the effects of aggregation in quantitative reviews. Other findings. The relation that the physical attractiveness stereotype showed to instructional set, type of attractiveness variation, and control for confounds are of somewhat less interest because it is difficult to interpret these findings in any but the most tentative way. \fet the tendency for the accuracy instructional set to produce a weaker stereotype than other instructional sets is interesting and consistent with Dion and colleagues' (1972) logic in choosing this particular set (see Dion, 1981,1986). It is also worth noting the tendency for the stereotype to be more pronounced in studies that apparently did not (vs. did) implement any control for confounds of attractiveness with other features of target stimuli. Because such studies presented only two individuals, one attractive person and one unattractive person (of each sex if both sexes of targets were included), attractiveness could have been confounded with other aspects of targets' physical appearance. The fact that this lack of control was associated with a stronger beauty-is-good effect suggests that confounds favored researchers' hypothesis. Limitations of This Meta-Analysis Our integration of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype addressed only a limited number of questions, and future meta-analyses of this research literature could well consider several other important issues. In particular, the beauty-isgood hypothesis might be compared with an ugly-is-bad hypothesis (Hatfield & Sprecher, 1986; Patzer, 1985). Such a meta-analysis would compare the differences in judgments of high- and medium-attractiveness targets with the differences in judgments of medium- and low-attractiveness targets. We did not compute effect sizes comparing medium-attractiveness targets with high- or low-attractiveness targets because the design comparing high- and low-attractiveness targets is the prototype for research on this topic. In fact, 71% of the studies in our sample did not include a middle or medium level of attractiveness. Another limitation of our meta-analysis is that we had no satisfactory way to gauge the strength of researchers' manipulations of physical attractiveness. Some of the between-study variability in findings was no doubt due to variation in the strength of the attractiveness manipulation. Most researchers used judges' ratings to select their target stimuli, but rules for selecting good- and bad-looking stimuli varied (e.g, some investigators excluded targets that were rated as extremely attractive or unattractive, whereas others did not; see Wallston & O*Leary's, 1981, discussion of this point). Although manipulation checks were often present, data were generally not reported in sufficient detail to allow the computation of effect sizes representing the perceived difference in the physical attractiveness of the high- and low-attractiveness targets. Moreover, norms of attractiveness probably changed over time so that the features of highly attractive faces varied somewhat from study to study. These variations in looks may have influenced the particular inferences that perceivers made. The conclusions of our meta-analysis are also limited by the characteristics of the existing paradigm for assessing the attractiveness stereotype. Many researchers from Dion and coworkers (1972) onward have used the same basic laboratory experimental procedure. In the interest of experimental control, Dion and associates' paradigm presented only one type of stimulus in a particular way: namely, college students depicted in head-and-shoulders photographs. In this study and in most subsequent research, the targets were young adults with the physical appearance idiosyncracies of people who attend college. This stimulus domain reduced the likelihood that goodlooking but bad types (e.g, dumb blonde, whore/tramp, femme fatale, sleazy guy, gigolo) were represented. For example, the prototypic femme fatale is generally depicted in the media as older than the modal college woman and identified by clothes, makeup, and jewelry that are unlikely to be worn by college women posing for yearbook photos. The most important limitation of the present meta-analysis follows directly from our goal of evaluating the strength and generality of the physical attractiveness stereotype. Because of our decision to study only the stereotype itself, we included only studies that assessed evaluative perceptions of targets in situations that did not involve personal or role relationships between perceiver and target. Although this emphasis allowed us to do
16 124 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO the best possible job of documenting the overall size of the attractiveness stereotype and its variability, especially as a function of the specific type of inference, it did not permit us to probe the impact that the beauty-is-good stereotype has on action. We have thus not examined the impact of attractiveness stereotyping in ongoing social interaction and everyday role relationships. Quantitative summaries of the large research literature addressing such issues can now proceed given the relatively clear description that the present review provides of the physical attractiveness stereotype itself. Conclusion This meta-anatysis indicates that narrative reviewers were correct in concluding that, in terms of perceivers' inferences from cues that convey physical attractiveness, what is beautiful is good. At the same time, our findings reveal that this effect is highly variable, and that the implicit personality theory framework successfully identifies factors that help account for this variation. Thus, our results indicate that the beauty-is-good effect depends crucially on the type of inference the perceiver is asked to make. Good looks induce strong inferences about social competence and weaker inferences about potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence, but have little impact on beliefs about integrity and concern for others. One important direction for future primary research is to design explicit tests of the effects we demonstrated of the type of attributes contained in dependent measures. Such research would require the development of reliable and valid indexes of the content-specific dimensions of personality represented in people's implicit theories. Indeed, some researchers have already taken steps in this direction. Specifically, Bassili (1981), who also proposed that the attractiveness stereotype is not as general as implied by the phrase beauty is good (see discussion early in this article), used factor analysis to demonstrate that Dion and colleagues' (1972) Social Desirability Index contains several contentspecific types of evaluative meaning. He also offered a more general instrument for measuring dimensions of personality that are affected by positive versus negative appearance. Other parts of the social psychological research literature on attractiveness also provide fruitful domains for quantitative reviewing. The most pressing next step is to integrate the results of the large number of studies that have examined the effects of physical appearance on how people are treated (e.g, in educational settings, Adams & Cohen, 1974; in judicial proceedings, Stewart, 1980). 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19 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE 127 Appendix References for Studies in Meta-Analysis Adams, G. R., & Huston, T. L. (1975). Social perception of middle-aged persons varying in physical attractiveness. Developmental Psychology, Alicke, M. n, Smith, R. H., & Klotz, M. L. (1986). Judgments of physical attractiveness: The role of faces and bodies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, Anderson, S. M., & Bern, S. L. (1981). Sex typing and androgyny in dyadic interaction: Individual differences in responsiveness to physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, Armstrong, D P. (1979). The facial attractiveness riddle (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1978). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 5127B. Barnes, M. L, & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Interpersonal effects of experimenter attractiveness, attire, and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, Barocas, R., & Karoly, P. (1972). Effects of physical appearance on social responsiveness. Psychological Reports, 31, Bassili, J. N. (1981). The attractiveness stereotype: Goodness or glamour? Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2, Benassi, M. A. (1981). The effects of order of presentation and physical attractiveness on attributions of ability (Doctoral dissertation, De Paul University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 2596B. Black, H. K. (1974). Physical attractiveness and similarity of attitude in interpersonal attraction. Psychological Reports, 35, Boor, M., & Zeis, E R. (1975). Effect of physical attractiveness on 1Q estimation: A failure to extend results of prior research. Psychological Documents, 5, 234. (Ms. No. 929). Byrne, D, London, O., & Reeves, K. (1968). The effects of physical attractiveness, sex, and attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality, 36, Carter, J. A. (1978). Impressions of counselors as a function of counselor physical attractiveness. Journal ofcou,:'eling Psychology, 25, Cash, T. E, Begley, P I, McCown, D. A, & Weise, B. C. (1975). When counselors are heard but not seen: Initial impact of physical attractiveness. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22, Cash, T. E, Kehr, J. A., Poryson, J., & Freeman, V (1977). Role of physical attractiveness in peer attribution of psychological disturbance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, Covington, J. K. (1981). The communicator's physical attractiveness and credibility as determinants of the effectiveness of a speech (Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 437A. Cunningham, M. R. (1986). Measuring the physical in physical attractiveness: Quasi-experiments on the sociobiology of female facial beauty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, Dermer, M. (1974). When beauty fails (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 4402A. Dermer, M, & Thiel, D. L. (1975). When beauty may fail. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, J/, Dion, K.., Berscheid, E, & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, Dushenko, T. W, Perry, R. P., Schilling, J., &Smolarski, S. (1978). Generality of the physical attractiveness stereotype forage and sex. Journal of Social Psychology, 105, Gallucci, N. T. (1984). Effects of men's physical attractiveness on interpersonal attraction. Psychological Reports, 55, Gallucci, N. T, & Meyer, R. G. (1984). People can be too perfect: Effects of subjects' and targets' attractiveness on interpersonal attraction. Psychological Reports, 55, Gillen, B. (1981). Physical attractiveness: A determinant of two types of goodness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Gillen, B. (1975). Physical attractiveness and sex as determinants of trait attributions. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36,1945B. (University Microfilms No ,693) Gillen, B., & Sherman, R. C. (1980). Physical attractiveness and sex as determinants of trait attributions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 15, 423^37. Green, C. E, Cunningham, 1, & Yanico, B. J. (1986). Effects of counselor and subject race and counselor physical attractiveness on impressions and expectations of a female counselor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, Guise, B. J., Pollans, C. H., & Turkat, I. D. (1982). Effects of physical attractiveness on perception of social skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54, Hailey, B. J. (1976). Selective attention as a factor in the maintenance of physical attractiveness and sex role stereotypes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 4227B. Havassy, V J. (1981). Reactions to professional women as a function of attractiveness and level of competence (Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 2130B. Heilman, M. E.,&Stopeck, M. H. (1985). Attractiveness and corporate success: Different causal attributions for males and females. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, Hicks, R. A., Pellegrini, R. I, & Tomlinson, N. (1978). Attributions of female college students to male photographs as a function of attractiveness and pupil size. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, Hill, M. K., & Lando, H. A. (1976). Physical attractiveness and sex-role stereotypes in impression formation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 43, Jackson, L. A. (1983). The perception of androgyny and physical attractiveness: Two is better than one. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, Janda, L. H., O'Grady, K. E., & Barnhart, S. A. (1981). Effects of sexual attitudes and physical attractiveness on person perception of men and women. Sex Roles, 7, Joseph, W B. (1977). Effect of communicator physical attractiveness and expertness on opinion change and information processing. 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20 128 EAGLY, ASHMORE, MAKHIJANI, AND LONGO La Voie, J. C, & Adams, G. R. (1978). Physical and interpersonal attractiveness of the model and imitation in adults. Journal of Social Psychology, 106, Lee, L. J., Adams, G. R, & Dobson, W R. (1984). Male and female attributions and social influence behavior towards a physically attractive female. Journal of Psychology, 117, Lewis, K. N, & Walsh, W B. (1978). Physical attractiveness: Its impact on the perception of a female counselor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, Longtain, M. J. (1981). Status generalization and performance expectation effects of sex role stereotypes, physical attractiveness, and expertise. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 3034B. (University Microfilms No ,655) Lucker, G. W (1977). Physical attractiveness, individual differences and personality stereotyping (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 4219B. Maddux, J. E, & Rogers, R. W (1980). Effects of source expertness, physical attractiveness, and supporting arguments on persuasion: A case of brains over beauty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, Miller, A. G. (1970). Role of physical attractiveness in impression formation. Psychonomic Science, 19, Mims, P. R, Hartnett, J. J., & Nay, W R. (1975). Interpersonal attraction and help volunteering as a function of physical attractiveness. Journal of Psychology, 89, Molberg, A. N. (1977). The effects of interpersonal distance, physical attractiveness, and sex on impression formation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 6408B. Moore, J. S., Graziano, W G., & Miller, M. G. (1987). Physical attractiveness, sex role orientation, and the evaluation of adults and children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, Nielsen, J. P., & Kernaleguen, A. (1976). Influence of clothing and physical attractiveness in person perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, Osterkamp, M. B. (1980). Impressions of older persons in initial interactions (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41,849A. Patzer, G. L. (1983). Source credibility as a function of communicator physical attractiveness. Journal of Business Research, 11, Pistilli.J. A. (1976). Stereotyped perceptionsof women asafunctionof menstrual cycle phase and physical attractiveness (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 4760B. Reeves, R. A. (1982). The effects of source physical attractiveness, similarity, and message type on persuasion: When beauty is not enough (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 2044B. Saner, S. I. (1983). Beyond the halo effect: Physical attractiveness and impression formation as a function of cue availability (Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44,1253B. Sanders, C. H, & Borowy, T. D. (1983). Physical attractiveness: Its influence on the perceptions of counselors (Report No. CG ). Knoxville: University of Tennessee. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Saxe, L. (1976). Perceiver characteristics as determinants of judgments of physically attractive and unattractive others (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 2577B. Small-Weil, S. B. (1981). The relationship between gender, physical attractiveness and occupational prestige (Doctoral dissertation, Tufts University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 3613B. Snyder, M, &Rothbart, M. (1971). Communicator attractiveness and opinion change. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3, Solomon, S., & Saxe, L. (1977). What is intelligent, as well as attractive, is good. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, Stretch, R. H, & Figley, C. R. (1980). Beauty and the boast: Predictors of interpersonal attraction in a dating experiment. Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 17, Tanke, E. D. (1982). Dimensions of the physical attractiveness stereotype: A factor/analytic study. Journal of Psychology, 110, Thornton, B., & Linnstaedter, L. (1980). The influence of physical attractiveness and sex-role congruence on interpersonal attraction. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 11, Webster, M., & Driskell, J. E. (1983). Beauty as status. American Journal of Sociology, 89, Widgery, R. N. (1974). Sex of receiver and physical attractiveness of source as determinants of initial credibility perception. Western Speech, 38, Widgery, R. N., & Webster, B. (1969). The effects of physical attractiveness upon perceived initial credibility. Michigan Speech Journal, 4, Wiener, S., Saxe, L, & Bar-Tal, D. (1975). The effects of physical attractiveness on attributions of causality for success and failure (Report No. CG ). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Wilson, M., Crocker, J., Brown, C. E., Johnson, D, Liotta, R, & Konat, J. (1985). The attractive executive: Effects of sex of business associates on attributions of competence and social skills. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6, Received May 17,1989 Revision received November 20,1989 Accepted November 6,1990
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