Accused of Genocide in Rwanda Today Living in The Netherlands

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1 M a j o r P ie r r e- C l a v e r K a r a n g w a Accused of Genocide in Rwanda Today Living in The Netherlands

2 Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 2

3 COMMEMORATING THE 16 TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE GENOCIDE IN MUGINA, GITARAMA, 25 APRIL 2010 Survivors of the genocide in Mugina, Gitarama, will gather tomorrow, 25 April 2010, at the Catholic Parish of Mugina to mark the 16 th commemoration of the massacres which took place there between April On that day, their thoughts will turn, in particular, to the most horrific massacres of 25 April which, in the words of one survivor was the end for Tutsis. They will pray, remember and pay their respects to the thousands of relatives, friends and neighbours who were killed at the parish and those who perished in the nearby bushes, empty houses and other hideouts where they sought shelter after they left the church. They will recall and give thanks for their own difficult but miraculous survival, and reflect on the extent to which their lives have been profoundly affected and shaped by their experiences of what they endured in Mugina in April-July Memorial of Mugina, where many of the victims of genocide are buried. The thoughts of the survivors in Mugina will also turn to the men and women, most of them their former neighbours and friends, who they hold responsible for the death of their families, in most cases almost their entire family, the injuries and torment they themselves suffered and the grief and sense of loss that marks their lives every day. For the past 16 years, the survivors of Mugina, as well as genocide perpetrators who confessed their own participation in the killings, have consistently placed the responsibility for what happened there in 1994 on one man, above all. He is Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa, a native of Mugina himself, who is now living in The Netherlands where is a Dutch citizen. Survivors and confessed perpetrators of certain massacres in Kigali, where Major Karangwa was based, have also provided strong and consistent testimonies which have identified Major Karangwa as a leader in massacres in the commune of Nyarugenge. Mugina Commemoration Report 3

4 In December 2007, African Rights and REDRESS submitted a confidential dossier on the allegations raised regarding Mr. Karangwa s involvement in the genocide to Dutch authorities, with a view to supporting an investigation into these allegations. Yet more than two years later, nothing appears to have been done to verify the witnesses statements. None of the witnesses who provided testimony to African Rights in relation to Mr. Karangwa have been interviewed by Dutch authorities. African Rights and REDRESS are publishing this report as a gesture of support for the struggle of survivors for justice, which is central to their recovery and healing. W e urge the Dutch authorities to follow the example they set in the case of Joseph Mpambara, who was investigated and eventually prosecuted, tried and convicted by a Dutch court. The Netherlands must listen to what survivors have to say and investigate these allegations, said both organizations on the eve of the commemoration of the genocide in Mugina. African Rights and REDRESS call on Dutch authorities to immediately commence an official investigation to examine these serious allegations, in cooperation with the authorities of other countries and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Justice is both a right and a moral duty owed to survivors and the families of those who perished. METHODOLOGY This report is based on statements which were taken over a period of two years, from , from survivors as well as perpetrators who were either in prison or who had been released after serving a prison sentence. Subject to practical possibilities and the preference of the witnesses, interviews were conducted in their homes, in the house of a third person, a public place or in prison. The statements were taken by experienced researchers working for African Rights and or African Rights and REDRESS, in Kinyarwanda, and subsequently translated into English. Pseudonyms have been used in some instances. BACKGROUND OF MAJOR PIERRE-CLAVER KARANGWA Born in 1955, Major Karangwa comes from cellule Kigese, sector Kiyonza in Mugina. He is the son of Paulin Ntawemvura, who has died, and Généreuse Nyirabujogori. Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 4

5 He attended the primary school close to the Catholic Parish of Mugina and then studied at the Junior Seminary at Kabgayi. Afterwards, he began his military career and studied at the Senior Military Academy (ESM) in Kigali. He was head of the Bureau G2 of the gendarmerie until the end of 1993, when he became a liaison officer with the United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda (UN A MIR), following the Arusha Accords that brought an ending to the war between the government and rebels. In April 1994 he became a special envoy at the disposal of the Chef d'état-major. Karangwa later worked as a defence investigator for Augustin Ndindiliyimana, the Pierre-Claver Karangwa former head of the national gendarmerie, indicted before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). In November 2002, he was removed as defence investigator at the request of the Registry of the Court, on the basis of confidential information made available to the Registry by the Chief of Prosecutions that Mr. Pierre Claver Karangwa was under investigation for possible involvement in the 1994 events in Rwanda. 1 BRINGING CALM TO UNSETTLED LIVES: A TRIBUTE TO CALLIXTE NDAGIJIMANA In April 1994, Mugina was fortunate to have Callixte Ndagijimana as bourgmestre of the commune. Because of his leadership and resolve, the people of Mugina united to insulate their commune from the anti-tutsi violence taking place in neighbouring areas. He did all he could to protect the Tutsis of Mugina, and ensured that the hundreds of refugees who poured in from the surrounding region received a warm welcome and felt safe. He mobilized local residents and his communal policemen as a force for peace and stood up to the interahamwe and local officials who wanted to bring the genocide to Mugina. The fact that he was himself a former soldier gave the Tutsis of Mugina, and those who sought refuge there, an additional measure of protection. Drawn by news that the bourgmestre of Mugina was able to contain the genocide in his area, Tutsis flocked to Mugina from communes in Gitarama including Runda, Musambira and Nyamabuye, where the town of Gitarama is located, and especially the neighbouring commune of Ntongwe where a large camp for Burundian refugees meant that Tutsis were being hunted down from the outset. Others came from further afield, for example Kigali city and Bugesera. The 1 The prosecutor v Augustin Nyindiliyimana, ICTR I, 12 November Mugina Commemoration Report 5

6 fact that Ndagijimana welcomed them and tried to help them materially and morally only increased the influx. Some stayed at the commune office, and others set up camp at the local Catholic parish. STOKING VIOLENCE IN MUGINA, APRIL 1994 As the refugees flocked to Mugina, so did the interahamwe, especially those from Runda. Concilie Kampire gave details of the many initiatives taken by Ndagijimana to maintain peace, and to keep the militia from Runda at bay. Callixte toured all the sectors telling the inhabitants to preserve security and making it clear that he didn t want to see any blood shed in his commune. He gave instructions for night patrols to be set up and got people to put up fences to identify those who came from other communes. He assigned police officers to guard the refugees from Runda and personally took them food supplies. He also encouraged us to help them. W e were stronger than the interahamwe because of the communal police force and because the bourgmestre himself had weapons. But according to Concilie and other witnesses, Ndagijimana faced serious and coordinated opposition from a range of powerful and influential men, including Major Karangwa, who worked in concert to ensure that his message of unity in the face of genocide went unheeded. Jonas 2, aged 21 in 1994, said he has known Karangwa from childhood since they come from the same sector of Kiyonza. He was aware that Karangwa was well-respected by local people because of his position. He confessed the crimes he himself had committed during the genocide some five years after he was first imprisoned. Admitting that he became a member of the militia established by their councillor, Evariste Nteziryayo, he added that he was given the task of mobilising the population to attend meetings and to obey the councillor s instructions. I consider Karangwa as the great planner of the genocide in our commune. People became involved in killing the Tutsis because of Karangwa s sensitisation. Because he held such a senior position, everyone took his message seriously. He showed a cruel attitude towards Tutsis when the genocide began in our region. This first became apparent when bourgmestre Callixte took measures to discourage the people who wanted to fan hatred between Hutus and Tutsis. If Karangwa had not supported the interahamwe in our region, the Tutsis there would be alive today. 2 A pseudonym. Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 6

7 He recalled a series of events which had led him to draw such a conclusion, beginning with the support and encouragement he accuses Karangwa of giving to a group of militiamen. The first group which was formed consisted of young men who used to hang around the shops in Kabuga. They were led by the two escorts of Major Karangwa. They included: Nayirodi; he was freed after he lost his mind. He s the son of Kaboroga; Xavéeri, Donatien s son who escaped from prison. Régis (a pseudonym), then 22, lived in sector Bibungo. The fact that Karangwa liked to visit a bar close to Régis home gave him, he said, the opportunity to see Karangwa when he came on visits to his family. I saw Karangwa three days after Habyarimana s death. François T wagiramungu, Théogène Nyandwi, and his sonin-law, Oreste Mafaranga, who lives in Gitarama town, had already established a roadblock at where the road intersects Mukinga and Bibungo sectors, near my home. Régis said he himself was at the roadblock. W e didn t really amount to very much because the bourgmestre, Callixte, had threatened to imprison us if we dared to kill the Tutsis. The arrival of Karangwa, however, changed the balance of power, said Régis. Karangwa, who was coming from Kigali, came up to us. He was in a whitish Toyota 4-wheel drive and was accompanied by more than five escorts. He spoke to Théogène to find out if we had begun killing the Tutsis. He told him no. Karangwa responded by saying: That s a great pity. You are doing nothing. To eliminate the Tutsis, it s not enough to set up roadblocks. Everywhere I ve just passed, the interahamwe are at work: in Nkoto, commune Runda, the operation is proceeding well. In Gashyushya, Musambira, the militia know what they have to do. In Gihinga, commune Taba, they are not only killing the Tutsis; they are also looting their houses and then burning them down. He ended his message by telling us that he was going to continue his journey to find out how the situation stood generally. He left by urging us not to be afraid to begin the hunt for Tutsis since no one had been given authority to impose order. Karangwa, he added, came back to the roadblock a few hours later. He returned at about 5:00 p.m. He took Théogène and Mafaranga to one side to speak to them privately. They Mugina Commemoration Report 7

8 spoke for about 30 minutes. He left promising us moral and material support. After his departure, Régis said Théogène and Mafaranga conveyed the essence of their conversation with Karangwa to the other men at the roadblock, including Régis. They told us that we were allowed to go after the Tutsis wherever they were hiding. In particular, we were to target the area close to the Parish of Mugina where there were already some Tutsi refugees. W e began to launch attacks at the parish from 14 April onwards. A few days after Habyarimana s death, Aloys (pseudonym), a soldier, said he left for Mugina where he comes from. He testified that he encountered Major Karangwa, accompanied by four gendarmes, in Gashyushya, commune Musambira, awaiting repairs to his car for a punctured tyre. Karangwa, he said, asked him to wait as he too was heading towards Mugina. W hen we reached Mugina, many people came up to Karangwa. W e were close to the market of Mugina. He asked them about the security situation. They told him: W e re trying to take care of security, but we lack guns. Karangwa asked Sekaziga, the councillor of sector Mbati, if there were any other leaders there. Sekaziga pointed out the presence of Miruho, the councillor of sector Nteko. There were Kalachnikov guns in Karangwa s vehicle. He told Sekaziga and Miruho: If the young men who were learning how to use guns have already finished, I will take them with me. In the meantime, Major Jean-Damascène Ukurikiyeyezu arrived on the scene. He spoke to Karangwa and afterwards, the gendarmes who were escorting Karangwa took the guns out of their car and gave them to the two councillors. Karangwa instructed both councillors to take ten guns and said the others were meant for those who were not there at the time. After the distribution of the guns, Karangwa left with Major Ukurikiyeyezu, and I left for Mukinga where my family lived. As part of his efforts to discourage disruptive behaviour, Ndagijimana had arrested Barnabé Uwizeyimana, alias Batakanwa, a close associate of Karangwa s, and about a dozen other militiamen. On Monday, 11 April, Karangwa apparently arrived in Mugina to pressure the bourgmestre to release Batakanwa and his companions, an event that rapidly changed the pace of events in Mugina. Not only did he free the men, said Jonas, he also made sure that they had a new supply of weapons and ammunution. Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 8

9 Karangwa was with other soldiers who had grenades, pistols, guns as well as bullets. The weapons were left behind for the soldiers who had been freed. He spoke of what he saw as the consequences of Karangwa s actions. Because they felt protected by Karangwa, the militia went on the offensive in the sectors where a lot of Tutsis lived, that is in Cyeru, Kayonza and Mukingo. It did not take long for the offensive to begin. On the morning of Tuesday the 11 th, Batankwa and his men threw grenades at the home of a Tutsi shopkeeper in cellule Munini, sector Kiyonza, close to the commecial centre of Kabuga, located in the neighbouring sector of Cyeru. Because of rumours that all Tutsi shopkeepers in Kabuga would be targets, Hutus and Tutsis in Kiyonza joined forces to fight off the men from Cyeru. Marcel Rutagarama was a student at home in sector Kiyonza for the school holidays. W hen we were in Kabuga, right near the cooperative, they started to throw grenades. Karerangabo was killed, even though he was Hutu. Another Hutu, Marcel, had his leg blown off. Towards evening, he said, Karangwa arrived. Karangwa ordered everyone who had a weapon to load it in his vehicle. W e were expecting a lot from him, including the disarmament of Batakanwa. Instead, he obliged us to hand over our weapons. W e were then forced to return home. Jean Marie-Vianney Kayitegere, who comes from the same sector, said he has known Karangwa since childhood. At about 4:00-5:00 p.m., while Karerangabo s corpse was still on the road, Karangwa arrived with a lot of soldiers in his car. W hen they saw him, the Hutus of Cyeru who had been attacking us immediately started to sing: Habyarimana is innocent! Habyarimana is innocent! Karangwa also danced with them. Karangwa brought out a bag of grenades from his car which he handed over to the people of Cyeru. That s when it dawned on us that we couldn t afford to take things lightly, and to see that the hunt for Tutsis had begun in earnest. Marcel Hitimana is one of the people who was injured in the attack at the commercial centre. Mugina Commemoration Report 9

10 I was hit by grenade splinters. A few minutes later, as I lay on the ground, I found myself surrounded by Karangwa and his group. Before starting the vehicle, they put me next to the body of Karerangabo, as a lesson to the Hutus who would like upon the scene. I stayed in the ditch until nightfall under the watch of four militiamen who stayed up to guard the roadblock. They had decided to leave me to die of cold. Karangwa reappeared around midnight. Very early in the morning, one of Emile Kimenyi s brother-in-laws took pity on me and took me to his house. My leg then had to be amputated when I was transferred to the hospital at Kabgayi. By W ednesday 13 April, commented Marcel Rutagarama, everything had changed. Discouraged and demoralized, the Tutsis of Mugina began to make their way to the parish in ever greater numbers. By contrast, Karangwa s intervention apparently bolstered the morale of the interahamwe of Mugina and of the neighbouring communes like Ntongwe, as noted by Jonas. THE PARISH OF MUGINA, APRIL 1994 The refugees at the Parish of Mugina occupied all the available premises, including the church itself, the courtyards, the primary school and the houses which were once used for teaching home economics. Cut off from the outside world, the refugees endured hunger and thirst and incessant rain and cold. The daily threats from the interahamwe made their lives even more perilous. St. Paul Parish, Mugina Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 10

11 According to the survivors interviewed for this report, when Karangwa visited the refugees at the parish between April, he gave them a verbal assurance that he was taking care of their security. But from interviews with militiamen who admit that they took part in the assaults on the parish, Karangwa was, at that very moment, taking the necessary measures to turn the parish into a place of insecurity and fear. Régis said that he and other militiamen were told, as early as the 12 th or the 13 th, by two of Karangwa s closest associates in Mugina, and the men he had conferred with openly in their presence, to attack the parish. Twagiramungu and Nyandwi told us we had to attack the parish because that was where most of the Tutsis were. A group of interahamwe took us to the parish, but the Tutsis there were stronger than the militia from Mukinga and Bibungo. Two days later, he said, Karangwa returned. He came with his wife and children. He had already stopped at Bibungo and spoken with Twagiramungu and Nyandwi. Each time Karangwa came to Mugina, he took a tour of all of the sectors and once it got close to dark, he would return to Kigali. On that day, he came around 7:00 p.m. and said to us: Look for them everywhere. I left guns for you in Mugina. If there are not enough, call me and I will give you more. He then went back to Kigali. Throughout Mugina, the hunt for Tutsis had begun. The interahamwe started to go after the Tutsis at the parish. Some expeditions found it impossible to overcome the resistance of the Tutsis, for example the operation led by Kabiligi from Cyeru and another from Ruyenzi led by Setiba. In the midst of the skirmishes between militiamen and the refugees, Régis said he had another opportunity to meet Karangwa, once again in Bibungo and, once again, making inquiries about the Tutsis at the parish. Three days after we had been trying to kill the refugees at the parish, Major Karangwa returned to Mugina. When he got to the shops in Bibungo, he stopped to greet Nyandwi. W e tried to get close to them to hear what Karangwa, who was the strongest man in the region, was saying. All of a sudden he asked: Have those at the parish been exterminated? It was true that some had perished in previous clashes, but there was still a great number of Tutsis there. Despite four successive days of attacks, we still had not obtained our objective of eliminating the Tutsis. Callixte Mugina Commemoration Report 11

12 Ndagijimana had helped the refugees to put up a solid defence. W e were afraid of approaching them too directly because, although they used traditional weapons, there were a lot of rumours around that Callixte had given them guns. One constant visitor to the parish was the bourgmestre, to bring what provisions he could, to provide the refugees with news, to raise their morale and to urge them to think about, and plan for, their self-defence. Despite the evident danger to his own life, Ndagijimana stayed put and looked for ways to save the people he had promised to help. For Espérance Mukamuyango, as for so many others, the only glimmer of hope was the continued support of the bourgmestre. The bourgmestre tried to shield us from the interhamwe. Each time they came, the men fought them back, using spears and stones, and the women and children were charged with collecting the stones. I was pregnant, so I couldn t help with the stone gathering. The battles between the interhamwe and the refugees went on and on. It got to the point where we didn t know what day it was anymore. W e were exhausted. W e had no more strength and no weapons. The Assassination of Callixte Ndagijimana, 21 April 1994 Callixte Ndagijimana was the principal impediment to the genocide in Mugina, and more specifically to the annihilation of the thousands of Tutsis who had gathered at the parish. Ndagijimana left Mugina on the morning of 21 April 1994 for Gitarama town. His car was ambushed in commune Ntongwe as he drove back towards Mugina, close to a camp for Burundian refugees. He was killed with his driver and a friend who was travelling with him. Karangwa, along with the bourgmestre of Ntongwe, and many others, have been repeatedly accused of having been involved in the assassination of the bourgmestre. Régis has little doubt that Ndagijimana s death was a result of his principled stand. Callixte was killed in Ntongwe by militiamen working closely with Burundian refugees. His murder is linked to his refusal to authorize the massacre of Tutsis. Karangwa had promised to look, together with other officials in the region, for an exemplary punishment for Callixte. The death of Ndagijimana was a double blow for the displaced persons at the parish. It exposed them to danger and redoubled the ferocity of the killers. Some of them escaped in time, right after they learned of his assassination. By then, the refugees were already weak from hunger. But stunned and disoriented by the news, the overwhelming majority remained put. W ith the whole area under siege, there were in any case few potential avenues of escape, especially for parents with Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 12

13 children, for the elderly, pregnant women, the sick and the wounded. Some of those who left the parish were intercepted and forced to return there; others were killed as they tried to cross the border into Burundi. The ability of the refugees to withstand the onslaught was greatly diminished, according to militiamen, because of the massive participation of Burundian refugees who were perhaps the most feared perpetrators in the genocide. The Killing Begins on 21 April 1994 and Continues Jean Marie-Vianney Kayitegere said that Karangwa visited the parish on the evening of Ndagijimana s murder, thee 21 st. W e put rocks on the roads to stop him leaving, unless he gave us assurances about who would take Callixte s place in watching over our safety. Instead of giving us a direct reply, he laughed and confirmed the death of Callixte. To persuade us to let him leave, he said he would come back with good news regarding our security. The good news consisted of the arrival of well-armed militiamen. Immediately after Karangwa left, groups of militiamen started to attack us. The policemen who had helped to ensure our survival had already left. W e were completely deserted. As the priests had also left by then, after telling us that Karangwa planned to eliminate us, many of us decided to find a way of getting to Burundi and Kabgayi. But there were those who didn t want to move because they were weak with hunger or because, being children, women or old people, they were vulnerable. Boniface Ndahiro said the final onslaught on 22 April 1994 ensured that there were very few survivors. The interahamwe poured into the parish, and massacred everyone in the chapel. That day was decisive. The only survivors left were a few wounded people who remained hidden under corpses. W e were completely abandoned and left to be massacred, because all the priests and expatriates had cleared off home. Today is the End for the Tutsis : Monday 25 April The killing went on for so long that the days merged into each other. But most survivors recall the particularly horrific massacre of 25 April. The killers first went for the men who were outside, and then when the men barricaded themselves in the new church, they killed the women and children in the old church, and the following day, they came back for the men and women in the new church. Mugina Commemoration Report 13

14 Etienne Nduguteye, who said he got to know Karangwa since Karangwa was in primary school, attributes the overwhelming nature of the massacre of 25 April to two factors W e suffered huge losses on the 25 th because we had progressively lost more and more of our human resources, and because of the explosive weapons Karangwa brought that day. He gave details about how the massacre unfolded, which he said lasted from about 11:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m., unfolded. The first to face the assailants were the men, like Etienne, who had been outside. The interahamwe fought us from 11 am until 5 o clock in the afternoon, and they followed us all the way into the parish. At that point everyone could see we were vanquished. The refugees were frightened and they started to disperse. I went into the new church with many of the men and we closed the door. The interahamwe attacked the old church. Most of the women and children were in there. The sense of being worn out before the killing had even started prefaced Justine s account of the events of the 25 th. The men had no strength left and we couldn t find any more stones. Then a big group of killers came. Those who tried to fight back were immediately killed. It wasn t a war of spears or bows; they had guns and other firearms. I was scared, and I hid myself in the old church behind everybody else. At the entrance were the largest men, who had taken their bows and were trying to return fire. Unfortunately, it was in vain. They couldn t respond to the gunfire because all they had were spears. They were shot first, and then the killers began lobbing grenades and the inside of the church burst into flames. Every moment, somebody fell and with one scream they were dead. W e were all wounded. I had a wound on my thigh. There were ten of us left alive, and others who were almost dead. Everywhere there were people asking for the killers to come in and finish them off. In the evening, the killers went home, saying that they were tired and they d have to come back the next day. But meanwhile, there were some who stayed just to loot the corpses. It was after they left that we could come out from behind the corpses. W hen we got outside, we saw everywhere the corpses of people who had been shot, as well as people in agony. Some were still alive, like Libérata Mukazuzi. Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 14

15 The New Church: Tuesday, 26 April As they promised, the men bent on eliminating the refugees in the new church returned the following day, Tuesday, 26 April. For Marcel Rutagarama, it was the start of many months of extreme physical pain and hardship. The killers returned at about 10:00 a.m. and began their attack aimed at destroying the church. All we had left was rain water which we had kept sealed and which we used to hamper the destruction of the church. They also tried to remove the door but we intervened. Around 1:00 p.m. they finally shot at the door which collapsed on the floor, allowing them to swarm inside. One of them shouted to us: W e do not wish to kill anyone inside the church; leave, with your hands in the air. This is a quote Marcel said the refugees left the church as instructed. W e followed their orders and came out of the church with our hands in the air. They ordered us to sit down close to a large acacia tree near the church which is still there, in the parish. They asked if there were any Hutus. One woman stood up and she was freed immediately. As we were sitting on the ground, each one of us had a killer behind him, watching. Next, added Marcel, was a decision to separate the men from the women. The women and girls were put to one side. It was a way of ensuring they were killed away from us, once the militiamen had raped them. Immediately after the women and girls had left, all of the men were undressed. After this, Célestin Hitayezu blew his whistle and shouted: Begin. After this whistle, I remember only a swift blow to my head from a machete. I immediately fell unconscious. I woke at midnight to a torrential downpour. I was extremely thirsty and my back hurt. I thought maybe I had been beaten. I didn t know yet that I had been slashed by a machete. I couldn t remember where I was, so I called upon the workers at our house to bring me some water. Once I had found some shelter, I tried to get up, to get out of the rain. I tried this three times but I couldn t. I tried to support myself by putting my hands on my back because of the terrible pain. That s when I felt the huge wound across my back. I realized I was almost dead; my back had been sliced in two. I abandoned the idea of trying to move myself over to the sorghum field. Instead, I waited for death. I was not alone in my suffering. I could hear my friends in agony all around me. There was one elderly man called Pascal who suffered the entire night calling for his Mugina Commemoration Report 15

16 children: Come and take me home. By the morning he was dead. Marcel said he spent three days among the dead before he was evacuated by the Red Cross to a hospital in Kabgayi. ABDUCTIONS FROM THE BISHOPRIC OF KABGAYI, MAY-JUNE 1994 In 1994, the sprawling grounds of the Bishopric of Kabgayi in Gitarama became a focal point for survivors from all over Gitarama and beyond, confident that the large number of senior clergymen based there would protect them. Its huge size, and the many buildings which it encompassed, added to its attraction as a potential safe haven. But the bourgmestres of Gitarama, and other civilian and military officials from that préfecture, came to the Bishopric in May and June 1994 in pursuit of Tutsi survivors from their commune who were taken away to be killed elsewhere. The rape of girls and women was also widespread. The fact that the names of Tutsis living there were kept on lists according to their commune of origin facilitated the abduction of refugees. Bishopric of Kagbayi Survivors from Mugina accuse Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa of coming to Kabgayi with the express purpose of identifying survivors from Mugina who were led out, never to come back. Sylvère Misago found it difficult to believe that Karangwa followed them as far as Kabgayi. Karangwa tried, he commented, to make it look like a social visit by greeting the natives of Mugina. Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 16

17 All the people Karangwa recognized were led out and never came back. I stayed behind because he didn t pick me out as someone from Mugina. It wasn t difficult for him to find the list since there were people there charged with the responsibility of listing all the refugees according to their commune. Every commune in Gitarama sent a group of militiamen to stay there and to select the refugees who were to be killed. The refugees from Mugina were taken away in a car by Karangwa. The delegation of militiamen from Mugina was led by Sebasinga, Boshywanubusa s son, in exile. His deputy was Célestin Hitayezu, also in exile, and his older brother, Paul Kabanda, who has died. Karangwa came from time to time to oversee the progressive elimination of those from Mugina. W henever he came, he spoke to Sebasinga to give him the list of would-be victims. Given the passage of time, I can t remember all the names of the victims, but those I recall include: Athanase Karera; an old man who drove bulldozers and who was very well known in Mugina; Kizito Seromba, a carpenter; Onésphore Ziruguru; he was well-known because he had children who were well-educated; Jean Marie-Vianney Karengera, a businessman; Xavéri Ngango, a peasant; Victor Karenzi, a prominent trader. He came to Kabgayi with his vehicle which was seized by Charles Kagabo, the bourgmestre of Ntongwe, who came to Kabgayi with Karangwa; Ntaganda, the older brother of W ellars Ntaganira, a former bourgmestre of Ntongwe. There were many others. Karangwa s men concentrated on those who were healthy, and didn t bother with those who were very sick and on the point of death in Kabgayi hospital, like Marcel Rutagarama of Radio Rwanda, and Spéciose Kabanyana. KIGALI, APRIL-JUNE 1994 The time and effort Major Karangwa invested in Gitarama did not, argue the men who say they worked alongside him, diminish his commitment to the genocide in Kigali where he was officially based. The testimonies about the role of Karangwa in facilitating the massacres and killings in Kigali, given by local government officials and militiamen, who acknowledge their own contribution to the genocide in Kigali, are detailed, consistent and powerful. Mugina Commemoration Report 17

18 In 1994, Jean Bizimana was the bourgmestre of commune Nyarugenge in Kigali where many of the massacres in which Karangwa has been implicated took place. He himself was imprisoned in connection with the genocide and later released. He said he learned of the support Karangwa gave to the militia in sector Nyakabanda from the men he allegedly delivered the arms to. I visited the Nyakabanda sector office in the second half of April Grégoire Nyirimanzi, the councillor, and Augustin Habinshuti, president of the interahamwe in that sector, were delighted with the material assistance which they had received from Karangwa. They told me that he had given 20 guns to Augustin to distribute to his militia who operated at the roadblocks which had been set up in that sector. Nyirimanzi speaks in a straightforward manner about his own central role in killing the victims, but he also points a finger at Karangwa, amongst others. The second opération I carried out with Major Karangwa concerns an attack against the Josephite Brothers in Nyamirambo in June. Karangwa contacted me at the office of the sector. He was accompanied by Col. Edouard Hakizimana and Habyarimana, alias Kigingi, a really terrible militiaman in Kigali. Once they were confident they had enough men, about 100 militiamen in the words of Nyirimanzi, the killing began. W e shot them and then used clubs and other traditional weapons we had brought to finish them off. The killing took place at about 5 : 00 p.m. The massacre took place in front fo the famous RTLM journalist, Georges Ruggio, who has been sentenced by the ICTR. Karangwa did not merely act as the head of the operation; he himself shot a few of the victims. That really inspired our militiamen who killed the victims in a truly horrible manner. Hussein Longolongo admits that he was the vice-president of the interahamwe militia in sector Rugenge in central Kigali during the genocide, the sector which houses the Parish of Ste. Famille. Aged 22 at the time, he lived in Bwahirimba in Rugenge, and worked as a driver for bulldozers. Interviewed by African Rights on three separate occasions, in 2006 and 2010, both while he was in prison and since he was released, he has never wavered in his statements which implicate Karangwa in many of the crimes which took place at Ste. Famille. Longolongo attributes the strength and impact of the militia he helped to lead to what he described as their close links with prominent officials in Kigali, including Karangwa. Our militia was very formidable and supported by several very important people, both civilians and military officers. Major Pierre-Claver Karangwa- Accused of Genocide in Rwanda 18

19 W e received orders from both the civilians and the military people. The civilians included Angéline Mukandutiye, a teacher, and her husband, Jean Sahunkuye. Their home was the meeting place for our band of militiamen. The military people used to come there to give us instructions about the killings at Ste. Famille; at CELA and elsewhere in sector Rugenge where we took the Tutsis captured at Ste. Famille. Mukandutiye worked closely with Major Laurent Munyakazi ; Col. Tharcisse Renzaho; Fr. Munyeshyaka ; Major Karangwa ; Major Patrice Bivamvagara and Lt. Kadanse. At Ste. Famille, the senior officials were there every time to supervise the killings. As the deputy head of the interahamwe in sector Rugenge, I knew all these people who were our superiors, the people who had the last word before we could attack any place. All these individuals who I have mentioned by name had a say in such a decision. Concerning Ste. Famille, Karangwa was one of the people involved in taking Tutsis away to be killed. I saw him twice. I can t make a mistake about what he looks like. I knew him even before the genocide. He used to like drinking tea at the OCIR-Thé in Gikondo in Major Karangwa was an officer in the gendarmerie. The fact that he was someone very important was obvious from the respect Munyakazi showed him. All the operations that our militia undertook outside of Sainte Famille and of sector Rugenge had to have the agreement of Major Karangwa. This is by no means an exhaustive list of the many and serious accusations which have been leveled against Major Karangwa in Kigali. His name has also been cited in connection with the massacre, on 8 April 1994, at the Catholic Parish of Charles Rwanga and the nearby College St. André, as well as a foiled attempted attack at the Gisimba orphange just before the genocide was brought to an end. If you would like to obtain a copy of the full report, please contact African Rights or REDRESS. Mugina Commemoration Report 19

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