General Technical Dossier Laminarin

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1 General Technical Dossier Laminarin The choice to produce better Fruits and vegetables

2 Contents Technical dossier Laminarin 1) Plant natural defense mechanisms. 2) Laminarin: mode of action. 3) Laminarin: features. 4) Vacciplant: practical applications. 5) Vacciplant: trial results. 6) Vacciplant: use in organic farming. Fruits and vegetables

3 Plants are under various multi-source attacks nematodes Natural mechanism cold, hail, wind UV bacteria insects Fungi. Pathogens attack virus herbivores

4 The 2 plant defence strategies 1. Plant natural defense mechanisms Plant are naturaly able to protect themselves : Construction of a front line defence by reinforcing cell walls. Plant strengthens its cell walls by producing lignin. The counter attack : production of compound that directly target the agressor. Phytoalexins inhibit the development of fungi. Plants produce defence proteins (PR proteins) that attack fungus cell walls.

5 1. Plant natural defense mechanisms Plant cell reactions Elicitors and plant - pathogen relations Cell wall nuclear FUNGI pectinases oligopectins receptor oligoglucans oligoglucans receptor glucanases defence signals nuclear nuclear Cell wall Cell wall PLANT CELL

6 Plant defence mechanisms are universal 1. Plant natural defense mechanisms All species have the ability to set up non specific plant defence mechanisms. These plant defence mechanisms are efficient against a wide range of various pathogens. Fungi Bacteria Virus

7 2. Laminarine : Mode of action A GOËMAR / CNRS innovation project A natural non toxic molecule 1-6 GLUCOSE 1-3 n=25-30 C 6 H 12 O 6 Laminarin is a chain of glucose, basic unit of sugar, similar than oligosaccharide from Fungi.

8 2. Laminarin : mode of action Plant cell reactions Elicitors and plant - pathogen relations Cell wall nuclear FUNGI pectinases oligopectins receptor oligoglucans oligoglucans receptor glucanases laminarin defence signals nuclear nuclear Cell wall Cell wall PLANT CELL

9 2. Laminarin : mode of action Scientific collaboration. Tobacco (IBMP Strasbourg; CNRS) Grape (INRA Dijon) Wheat (IBP Orsay; CNRS) dicotyledones monocotyledones

10 2. Laminarin : mode of action A wide spectrum of potential interest Virus / Tobacco Bacteria / Tobacco Fungi / Wheat Water Water laminarin Water laminarin laminarin laminarin stimulates most of the potential reactions that plants may use to protect themselves. This gives protection against a wide range of pathogens.

11 3. Laminarin : features Systemic protection. Laminarin induces systemic protection. New formed organs are equally protected. Regulatory status. Laminarin is included in Annexe I - 91/414/CE Directive (22/01/05). No toxicological residues no Pre Harvest Interval No Tox, No Ecotox, N classification Preventive. Laminarin has preventive action and therefore must be applied before the plant is attacked by the targeted pathogen. 3 days after laminarin application, plant defences are established.

12 The optimal rate must be carefully followed. Under the optimal rate, the efficiency decreases. No advantage to use higher rate. 3. Laminarin : features Efficient on resistant strains (to fungicides). Defences induced by laminarin are efficient on different types of fungi, due to its multi target mode of action (phytoalexine, hydrolases, lignin) and its indirect mode of action (Salicylic acid, Jasmonic acid)

13 4. Vacciplant : practical applications Principle of laminarin use Laminarin can be included in protection strategies as a complementary tool to produce better while maintaining the objective of highest possible return for the grower. Laminarin finds its place in the 3 following positionings: Diseases with no solutions : bacteria (Fire blight), virus. Residue issues : in conventional farming, the 4 th criteria for fruits and vegetable production for growers (after quality, yield, labour) due to higher food chain requirements. Organic farming : an innovative solution when clean protection products are rare.

14 4. Vacciplant : practical application Fruits and vegetables Composition : 45 g of Laminarin per litre Registration in France : AMM n : - Strawberry powdery mildew (Oïdium du fraisier) - Fire blight of apple, pears, Quince tree and Nashi (Feu Bactérien). - Apple scab (Tavelure du Pommier) Other registrations : - Registered in Belgium against storage deseases, application in France for the South zone of Europe in July No classification : Pre Harvest Interval (DAR) : 0 day Vacciplant is a biocontrole product and benefits from NODU and green IFT in France ZNT : 5 m DRS : 6 hours Minimum

15 5. Vacciplant : trial results Synthesys of 6 trials with effective desease pressure 30 Frequence on fruits at harvest Control ,9 6,5 Staphyt 10 Jonagored 2,8 0,50,8 Gorsem1 10 Jonagored 11,7 2,9 3 Gorsem2 10 Jonagored 2 2,4 0,4 0 0,20,5 Sagea 11-1 Golden Sagea 11-2 Golden 7,9 4,6 2 2,52,1 1 Sagea 12 - Golden Moyenne Fungicides Vacciplant The reliability of Vacciplant protection program is confirmed in each trial.

16 5. Vacciplant : trial results Vacciplant alone against apple gloeösporium % of healthy fruits after 3 to 5 month storage 5 essais, 5 notations 1 essai, 1 notation 4 essais, 4 notations Vacciplant used alone is as efficient as fungicides against Gloeösporium after 3 month storage.

17 5. Vacciplant : trial results Vacciplant alone against storage apple scab Essais Biotek, Pologne, 2011, Jonagold % of healthy fruits after 3 to 5 month storage Control Réf Vacciplant Vacciplant used alone shows a protection againt scab during storage.

18 5. Vacciplant : trial results Today Laminarin has been studied on numerous crops and against various pathogens. Cereals Vegetables Fruits Grape

19 6. Vacciplant : use in organic farming Approval update - June 2008 : Goëmar requested for Laminarin to be listed in Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 889/ th and 15th December 2011 : the Expert Group on Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) appointed by the UE Comission in June 2009 concluded that Laminarin should be included in Annex II. - April 2013 : Laminarine is still not listed in in Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and thus can not be used in organic farming The UE does not want to include Laminarin and other new substances in the Annex II until that document has been reviewed regarding low risk and basic substances explaining this slow process. The US system is much more efficient with autorisation provided in one year. 5. laminarin: use in organic farming

20 Conclusion To answer agriculture new challenges Markets and society are expecting an agriculture respectfull of Human and its environment. In the meantime : It is necessary to maintain productivity and profitability of farming To answer this challenge, Vacciplant exists but still needs administrative approval for organic farming!

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