1 EMPLOYING A CROATIAN NATIONAL IN THE UK What is this leaflet about? This leaflet explains what employers need to do in order to legally employ a Croatian national from 1 July Issues covered include the process a Croatian national must go through to obtain an accession worker authorisation document that allows them to work in the United Kingdom (UK), the documents we issue that prove an individual has work authorisation and which Croatian nationals can work here without restrictions. Contents The transitional restrictions...2 Croatian nationals who need an accession worker authorisation document...3 How a worker authorisation registration certificate is obtained...7 Evidence of work authorisation...10 Employing a Croatian without an accession worker authorisation document...11 Documents issued to Croatian nationals and what they allow them to do...12 Frequently asked questions...14 Annex A: Information on Tiers 2 and 5 of the points-based system...16 Annex B: English language requirements...20
2 The transitional restrictions After 1st July 2013, as European Economic Area (EEA) nationals, Croatians will be able to move and reside freely in any European Union (EU) member state. However, member states may apply restrictions on access to the labour market for a transitional period. The United Kingdom (UK) is applying such transitional restrictions. These are applied by the Accession of Croatia (Immigration and Worker Authorisation) Regulations Under these Regulations, a Croatian national who wishes to work in the UK and who is subject to the worker authorisation requirement will need to obtain an accession worker authorisation document (permission to work) before starting any employment. An accession worker authorisation document will normally take the form of a worker authorisation registration certificate (or purple registration certificate ) which the Croatian national must apply for. This document will contain an endorsement restricting the holder s employment to a particular employer and category of employment. Those qualifying for a purple registration certificate will generally be skilled workers who meet the criteria for the issue of a certificate of sponsorship under Tier 2 and Tier 5 of the points-based system. It is an offence under The Accession of Croatia (Immigration and Worker Authorisation) Regulations 2013 to employ a Croatian national who needs permission to work in the UK and does not have it. This could lead to criminal sanctions against both the employer and employee.
3 Croatians who need an accession worker authorisation document From the 1 July 2013, Croatian nationals who fall into one of the categories below will be able to work in the UK without permission from the Home Office: On 30 June 2013, they had leave to enter or remain and that leave did not place any restrictions on taking employment in the United Kingdom (See below for examples). On 30 June, they had already been working with permission in the UK and have done so for a continuous period of 12 months ending on that date. This can be in any number of jobs, provided that the Croatian national had leave in their passport that allowed them to work for each. They have been working legally and continuously for a period of 12 months ending or after 30 June This can be in any number of jobs, provided that the Croatian national had permission for each, or was not required to obtain it. They have acquired a right of permanent residence under regulation 15 of the EEA regulations (see below). They are also a national of another EEA Member State (except where, until the end of December 2013, they are a national of Bulgaria and Romania and are subject to the worker authorisation requirements applied to nationals of those countries). They are the spouse, civil partner, unmarried or same sex partner of a UK national or a person settled in the UK. They are the spouse, civil partner, unmarried or same sex partner or child under 18 of a person who has leave to enter or remain in the UK hat allows a person to work in the UK. For example, this would apply to a Croatian national whose husband was a non-eea national who was a work permit holder or had leave under a category of the points-based system that allowed them to work for a particular employer or a specific job category. they are the spouse, civil partner, unmarried or same-sex partner, or the Croatian national descendant aged under 21 or dependant of a Croatian national who has been issued with an accession worker authorisation document and is working in accordance with the conditions placed in that document. They are a highly skilled person and hold a registration certificate confirming that they have unrestricted access to the labour market. They are a posted worker (See below). They are a member of a diplomatic mission or are in another specified category exempt from the 1971 Act. They are in the UK as a student and they either: a) hold a registration certificate confirming that they:
4 are exercising a Treaty right as a student and they cannot work for more than 20 hours per week during term time, (not including any time spent on a work placement that is an assessed part of their course); or are working during vacation periods; or b) have leave to enter or remain as a student and are working in accordance with any conditions attached to that leave. The conditions on employment of leave granted as a student are that the holder can only work up to a maximum of 20 hours during term time, but as long as they want during holiday periods. This will apply in circumstances where they had leave as a student before 1 July 2013, continue to meet the criteria as a student and this leave is still valid. If they do not fit into any of the above categories, they will need an accession worker authorisation document. Leave that allows a person to work in the UK without any restrictions Leave which does not restrict a person s right to work includes: indefinite leave to enter or remain limited leave to enter or remain on code 1A conditions, such as: leave as a refugee humanitarian protection discretionary leave, or exceptional leave to enter or remain limited leave to enter or remain on code 1 conditions, such as: leave as the spouse, civil partner, unmarried partner or same-sex partner of a British citizen or person present and settled in the UK leave as a dependant of a worker permit holder leave under the Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP), or leave under the pre-tier 4 postgraduate doctors and dentists scheme. If the leave has a restriction (or prohibits employment 1 ) then it does not count under this exemption. Leave that restricts or prohibits a person s right to work includes: code 2 leave (work permit holders, students) 1 This does not include leave granted on Code 1 conditions which is subject to a condition limited to preventing the holder taking employment as a trainee doctor or dentist or professional sportsperson.
5 code 3 or 5N leave (visitors no right to work), You should be able to determine the kind of leave the prospective employee has by looking at the endorsement on his/her passport. Tier 1 Leave Where leave under Tier 1 states that the holder cannot engage in employment as a trainee Doctor/Dentist or as a professional sportsperson, this does not count as an employment restriction for the purposes of the Croatian regulations. If a Croatian held such leave on 30th June 2013 and work as a trainee Doctor/Dentist or as a professional sportsperson was the only restriction on their employment then they will be exempt from worker authorisation and can work without restriction in the UK. They can apply for a blue registration certificate if they wish. Permanent Residence under Regulation 15 of the EEA regulations Under regulation 15 of the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006, an EEA national or their family member can acquire permanent residence in the UK under European law if they have lived here in line with the European regulations for a continuous period of 5 years. This could mean they were exercising a Treaty right as a worker, self employed person, as a student or as a self sufficient person for 5 years, or that they have had a right to reside as the family member of another EEA national who was exercising a Treaty right for 5 years. Although not obliged to have documentation proving they have permanent residence, EEA nationals and non-eea nationals can obtain documents confirming their permanent residence status. The document certifying permanent residence is a free standing document issued to EEA nationals. A permanent residence card is a vignette placed in the holder s passport and is issued to non- EEA nationals. Posted Workers A posted worker is someone who is the subject of a posting within the meaning of Article 1(3) of the Posted Workers Directive (Council Directive 96/71/EC). They will therefore be the employee of business established on the territory of another Member State and posted to the UK in the context of the supply of a service by that business to a UK client. A Croatian national who is a posted worker is exempt from worker authorisation only as long as they continue to be a posted worker and will not become exempt from the worker authorisation requirement by virtue of working for a period of 12 months in that capacity. If they want to do
6 other work apart from that entailed in their posting they will need work authorisation from the Home Office. Highly Skilled Persons A Croatian national may apply for a registration certificate confirming the holder has free access to the labour market (a blue registration certificate ) on the basis that they are a highly skilled person. In order to be regarded as highly skilled, the Croatian national will have to either: meet the relevant requirements of the exceptional talent category under Tier 1 of the points-based system by obtaining an endorsement (e.g. a letter of recommendation) from a designated competent body. These bodies will either be The Royal Society, The Royal Academy of Engineering, The British Academy or the Arts Council; or in the period of 12 months preceding the date of their application for a blue registration certificate, been awarded one of the following from a UK higher education institution: A recognised bachelor, masters or doctoral degree, or A Higher National Diploma (HND) by a Scottish higher education institution Further information on which Croatian nationals can be regarded as highly skilled can be found on the Home Office website via the link below:
7 How a worker authorisation registration is obtained The process The process for obtaining a worker authorisation registration certificate goes through three stages; Step 1: The employer must be a licensed sponsor under the relevant tier and category of the points-based system Step 2: The sponsor must assign a certificate of sponsorship under the correct Tier 2 or Tier 5 category. Step 3: The Croatian national uses their certificate of sponsorship to support their application for a purple registration certificate, which then gives permission to work in the UK for that particular employer/job category. Sponsor licences If you are an employer who wants to employ a Croatian national in any work that falls within Tier 2 or Tier 5 of the points-based system, you must have a sponsor licence. Once you have a licence, you can assign a certificate of sponsorship to a Croatian national as long as all of the requirements we set out have been met. Before you apply for a licence, you should check whether you are eligible and able to comply with your sponsorship duties. Very briefly, you can apply for a licence if: you are a legitimate organisation, operating lawfully in the UK; we have no reasons to believe that you may be a threat to immigration control; and you are able and willing to comply with the duties we expect you to meet. Full information on the conditions and process for applying for a licence are available on our website via the following link: Changing Jobs If a Croatian national holds a purple registration certificate that allows him/her to do a particular job, but then wants to change employment, they will need to apply for a new purple registration certificate if they still require permission to work. If they fall into one of the exempt categories listed in the previous section then they can change jobs without needing permission.
8 Tier 2 and Tier 5 Employment Croatian nationals who need worker authorisation will only be able to obtain it for jobs covered by Tiers 2 and 5 of the points-based system, unless they are going to be employed as a postgraduate doctor/dentist (see below), sole representative of an overseas business, or a domestic servant in a private household. In general Tier 2 covers full-time jobs which are skilled to National Qualifications Framework (NQF) level 6 and above, while Tier 5 covers temporary work skilled to NQF level 3 and above. Further information on Tiers 2 and 5 and the categories of jobs they cover can be found in Annex A of this leaflet. English Language requirements Some of the Tier 2 categories require workers to meet specific English language requirements and these requirements also apply to Croatian nationals. These requirements are summarised in Annex B of this leaflet. If they do not have the required level of English, their application for a purple registration certificate will be refused. Certificates of sponsorship A certificate of sponsorship is a 'virtual document' assigned by a licensed sponsor to a prospective employee. A Croatian national must quote their certificate of sponsorship reference number on their application for a purple registration certificate. Once they have been granted permission to work, they will only be allowed to work for their sponsor in the job they have been employed to do. Categories of employment where a certificate of sponsorship is not required Where an employer is seeking to take on a Croatian national as either: a foundation programme doctor or dentist (see below) a domestic worker in a private household the representative of an overseas business (see below) a certificate of sponsorship is not required. However, the Croatian national must still apply for a purple registration certificate as evidence of permission to work in the UK. If an employer wishes to take on a Croatian national in one of the three categories above, they must provide them with a letter confirming a job offer. This letter will then need to be submitted by the Croatian national with the application for a purple registration certificate.
9 Postgraduate Doctors and Dentists Croatians who are postgraduate doctors or dentist and want to undertake a foundation programme DO NOT need to obtain a certificate of sponsorship before applying for a purple registration certificate. This category does NOT cover those postgraduate doctors or dentists who have already completed a foundation programme and are seeking employment in more senior posts such as specialists or general practitioners. Such employment comes under Tier 2 (General) and a certificate of sponsorship will be required in order to gain a purple registration certificate. The Representative of an Overseas Business This category covers two job types. 1. Where the Croatian national has been taken on as an employee outside the UK by a business which has its headquarters and principal place of business outside the UK and which has no existing branch, subsidiary or other representative here; or 2. Where the Croatian national intends to work in the UK as an employee of an overseas newspaper, news agency or broadcasting organisation being posted on a long-term assignment as a representative of their overseas employer; Purple registration certificates Once they have a certificate of sponsorship, the Croatian national must apply for a purple registration certificate using form CR3 which is available on our website. They must complete all the relevant sections and include the fee with their application. Further information about the application process is available on our website via the following link: They will not have permission to work until we have issued their purple registration certificate. If they start work before their certificate has been issued, they will be working illegally.
10 Evidence of work authorisation There are two ways in which a Croatian national can show an employer they have work authorisation. They will either have; a valid purple registration certificate; or a Croatian passport or other travel document (e.g. a Home Office travel document) that has been endorsed with leave to enter or remain in the UK before 1 July 2013 and which permits limited employment (e.g. only allows the holder to work specific hours, or for a specific employer or job category) When the purple registration certificate is deemed valid The purple registration certificate will be deemed valid provided that: the holder works for the employer named on the document any time limit placed on the document is adhered to, for example if the job will only last for a specific length of time. it has not been revoked by us. (It could be revoked if, for example, we discover that it was obtained fraudulently.) When the leave on a Croatian national s passport or other travel document is deemed valid A Croatian national will only hold worker authorisation for as long as the leave in their passport remains valid. Once this leave (which must have no restrictions on employment) expires they will need to apply for a purple registration certificate unless they can show they fall into a category where they are exempt from work authorisation.
11 Employing a Croatian national without worker authorisation Your duty under the Accession of Croatia Regulations 2013 Under the 2013 Regulations you have a duty to prevent illegal working by carrying out document checks to confirm if a Croatian national either a) has unrestricted access to the UK labour market as they are exempt from work authorisation, or b) holds a valid worker authorisation document allowing them to carry out the type of work in question. You should check, validate and keep dated copies of original, acceptable documents before they start working for you. If a Croatian national has a worker authorisation document endorsed with a restriction to a particular named employer, or the type of work they can do, then you must not employ them in breach of these restrictions. This duty applies to Croatian nationals employed in the UK on or after 1 July Penalties if you fail to carry out your duty If you do not carry out these checks you may be required to pay a fine, known as a civil penalty, under section 11(2) of the 2013 Regulations, if you employ a Croatian worker illegally. You will commit a civil offence under section 11(1) of the 2013 Regulations if you employ a Croatian national who is subject to worker authorisation during the accession period (1 July June 2018) if that person is not the holder of a valid accession worker authorisation document or, where that person holds such a document, the person would be in breach of a condition of that document in undertaking the employment. If you are found employing a Croatian national without worker authorisation you face a heavy fine and/or imprisonment. For further information on the penalties for employing a Croatian worker who does not have the correct authorisation and the checks that you need to carry out see Guidance for employers on preventing illegal working in the UK-Croatian nationals. This can be accessed via the link below. s/preventingillegalworking
12 Documents issued to a Croatian national and what it allows them to do. Blue registration certificates These certificates indicate that the holder has full access to Treaty rights and that their access to the UK labour market is not restricted. This group includes highly skilled migrants, the Croatian national spouse or civil partner of a UK national or a person settled in the UK, and the other categories exempt from requiring work authorisation. Yellow registration certificates These certificates indicate that the holder does not have full access to the labour market. This certificate will state the manner in which the holder is exercising a treaty right. This will normally cover those Croatian nationals who are exercising Treaty rights other than as a worker, for example, as a student. Purple registration certificates These are issued to those Croatian nationals who must have permission to work in the UK. The work that the holder is allowed to do will be stated on the purple registration certificate. The table overleaf summarises the above. Type of Document A blue registration certificate A yellow registration certificate Who the document can be issued to Those who are not subject to worker authorisation These are issued to the self employed, self sufficient persons and students. The certificate will indicate in which way the holder is exercising their treaty right. What employment it allows This gives the holder free access to the UK labour market. There is no restriction on who the person can work for or how many hours they can work. Where the yellow registration certificate indicates that the holder is a student they will be able to work for any employer for up to 20 hours per week during term time. During vacation times they can work for any employer full time if they wish. If they are on a course of vocational training they can also work as part of that training.
13 A purple registration certificate These are issued to those Croatian nationals that need worker authorisation for employment under Tiers 2 or 5 of the pointsbased system Where the yellow registration certificate indicates that the holder is a self employed person, they cannot work as an employee. Where the yellow registration certificate indicates that the holder is a self sufficient person, they are not allowed to work. These allow the holder to work for the employer stated on the purple registration certificate. The holder will only have permission to work in the job stated on their certificate of sponsorship. If they are allowed to undertake supplementary employment this will be noted on their certificate. If the document contains no statement saying that supplementary employment is allowed, then no supplementary employment can be undertaken.
14 Frequently asked questions What is a purple registration certificate? If you wish to employ a Croatian national and they are not exempt from requiring permission to work in the UK, they will need worker authorisation before they start a job. This worker authorisation will normally take the form of a purple registration certificate. The purple registration certificate will restrict the holder to the job specified on the document. The document can be issued for skilled work under Tier 2 or temporary work under Tier 5 of the points-based system. How do you get a purple registration certificate? In order for a Croatian national to apply for a purple registration certificate they will need to have a job offer from an employer who is licensed under the pointsbased system and has assigned a certificate of sponsorship to them. The Croatian national must then apply to us for a purple registration certificate. Application forms and guidance notes can be found on our website: Can you get a purple registration certificate before you come to the UK? Yes. They will need to download the CR3 application form from the website and send in the required documents and fee to the UK address on the form. Can a Croatian national work while their application for a purple registration certificate is being decided? No. They will only be able to work once they have received their purple registration certificate. Is there a fee for applying for a purple registration certificate? Yes. Under the Accession of Croatia (Immigration and Work Authorisation) Regulations 2013, the fee is 55. Can a Croatian student work? Croatian nationals who can demonstrate that they are on full time course of study at a place of study recognised by UK government can be issued a yellow registration certificate. The yellow registration certificate will state that the holder is a student and will outline what hours s/he can work. You can employ Croatian nationals who are students for up to 20 hours a week during term time and full time during vacation time.
15 Can I employ Croatian nationals married to British citizens or people settled in the UK? Yes, Croatian nationals married to a British citizen or to someone who has settled status in the UK will not require permission to work here. However, in order to demonstrate this to an employer they should apply for a blue registration certificate confirming they are free to work without restriction. Alternatively, they can also demonstrate this if they already have leave to remain, for example as the spouse, civil partner of a British or settled person under the Immigration Rules. What penalties does a Croatian national face for working in the UK illegally? A Croatian employee could face a heavy fine and/or up to 3 months in prison. What penalties for taking on a Croatian national who doesn t have permission to work in the UK does an employer face? An employer could face a heavy fine and/or imprisonment.
16 Annex A: Information on Tiers 2 and 5 of the points based system What istier 2 employment? Tier 2 is skilled workers tier of the points-based system. It is divided into the categories below. Tier 2 (General) Tier 2 (General) is for migrants who have a skilled job offer to fill a gap in the workforce that cannot be filled by a settled worker. The job must be at or above National Qualifications Framework (NQF) level 6 (or the equivalent in Scotland) - or: at S/NVQ level 4 or above if the migrant is already in the UK under Tier 2 (General), Tier 2 (Intra company transfer) or a work permit if that permission to stay was granted under the rules in place between 6 April 2011 and 13 June 2012; or at S/NVQ level 3 or above if the migrant is already in the UK under Tier 2 (General), Tier 2 (Intra company transfer) or a work permit if that permission to stay was granted under the rules in place before 6 April 2011 The migrant must be paid the appropriate salary or other remuneration package for the job in the UK. For Croatian nationals, all of these conditions must be met throughout the period where they must have worker authorisation. If they have already completed 12 months uninterrupted employment ending on or after 30 June 2013, they will be exempt from needing worker authorisation. Tier 2 (Intra company transfer) Tier 2 (Intra company transfer) enables multinational companies to transfer their employees to the UK under 4 sub-categories: Long-term staff and short-term staff - these routes are for established, skilled employees to be transferred to the UK branch of their organisation to fill a post that cannot be filled by a settled worker. Both are for migrants doing jobs at or above NQF level 6 (or the equivalent in Scotland). Longterm staff can come to the UK for 3 years (which can then be extended by another 2 years). Short-term staff can come to the UK for up to 12 months.
17 Graduate trainee - this route allows the transfer of recent graduate recruits to a UK branch of the organisation, for training purposes Skills transfer - this route allows the transfer of new recruits to a UK branch of the organisation to acquire the skills and knowledge that they will need overseas, or to impart their specialist skills or knowledge to the UK workforce. The migrant must be paid the appropriate salary or other remuneration package for the job in the UK, including any permitted allowances. In some of the sub-categories, the migrant must have been working for the overseas employer for a minimum period directly before their transfer. Tier 2 (Sportsperson) Tier 2 (Sportsperson) is for elite sportspeople and coaches: who are internationally established at the highest level; and whose employment will make a significant contribution to the development of their sport at the highest level in the UK; and who intend to base themselves in the UK. Migrants under this category must be sponsored by a club (or equivalent). Tier 2 (Minister of religion) Tier 2 (Minister of religion) is for people coming to the UK to work in a religious role within a genuine (bona fide) religious organisation if there is no suitable settled worker to fill the role. The job can involve: preaching or performing pastoral duties; work as a missionary; or working or living as a member of a religious order within a community which involves a permanent commitment, like a monastery or convent. For further details see the relevant section of the Sponsor s Guidance which can be found at:
18 s/pbsguidance/ Tier 5 employment Tier 5 is the temporary workers tier of the points-based system. All work done under Tier 5 must be in a job which skilled to at least NQF level 4, or the equivalent in Scotland. It is divided into the following categories. Tier 5 Temporary Workers (creative and sporting) This category is for migrants coming to the UK to work as sports people or to perform as entertainers or creative artists. It does not cover people who currently enter the UK under the permit-free concessions for entertainers (including permit-free festivals) and sports people. These concessions have been brought within the Immigration Rules (outside the points-based system) under the revised visitor categories. Tier 5 Temporary Workers (charity worker) This category is for migrants coming to work temporarily in the UK as charity workers. They can do only voluntary activities directly related to the purpose of The Charity organisation that is sponsoring them and cannot do paid work. Tier 5 Temporary Workers (religious worker) The religious worker category is for people coming to the UK to work temporarily in a religious role. This includes those coming to preach as well as do pastoral and non pastoral work. For further details see the relevant section of the sponsor s guidance which can be found at: s/pbsguidance/ Tier 5 Temporary Workers (Government authorised exchange) The government authorised exchange category is for people coming to the UK through approved schemes that aim to share knowledge, experience and best practice. This category must not be used to fill job vacancies or to bring unskilled labour to the UK. All existing and newly approved schemes fall under: a work experience programme;
19 a research programme; or a training programme. Tier 5 Temporary Workers (international agreement) This category is for migrants who are coming to the UK under contract to provide a service that is covered under international law, including: employees of overseas governments and international organisations; private servants in diplomatic households; the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS); and similar trade agreements between the UK and another country. Applying for a sponsor licence If you are an employer who wants to act as a sponsor under the points-based system, you will need a sponsor licence under the relevant category of Tier 2 or Tier 5. Once you hold a sponsor licence, you will be able to assign certificates of sponsorship to any Croatian national or other non-eea worker you wish to employ. Before you apply for a licence, you should check whether you are eligible to be a sponsor, and ensure that you will be able to comply with your sponsorship duties. You can apply for a licence if: you are a legitimate organisation, operating lawfully in the UK; there are no reasons for us to believe that you may be a threat to immigration control; and you are able and willing to meet your sponsorship duties. Full information on the process for applying for a sponsor licence see the guidance for sponsors which is available on our website via the following link: s/pbsguidance/
20 Annex B: English Language requirements Some of the jobs under Tier 2 of the points-based system have English language requirements that a Croatian national (and in fact all non-eea nationals) must meet before they can be issued with a purple registration certificate. These are summarised in the table below. Type of application Application for a registration certificate on the basis that the applicant is a highly skilled person, where such a application is supported by an endorsement from a designated competent body Application for a registration certificate on the basis of a certificate of sponsorship under Tier 2 (General) Application for a registration certificate on the basis of a certificate of sponsorship under Tier 2 (Minister of Religion) Application for a registration certificate on the basis of a certificate of sponsorship under Tier 2 (Sportsperson); or as a representative of an overseas business Relevant English language requirement A knowledge of English equivalent to level B1 or above of the Council of Europe's Common European Framework for Language Learning A knowledge of English equivalent to level B1 or above of the Council of Europe's Common European Framework for Language Learning A knowledge of English equivalent to level B2 or above of the Council of Europe's Common European Framework for Language Learning A knowledge of English equivalent to level A1 or above of the Council of Europe's Common European Framework for Language Learning Further information on these English language requirements as well as how prospective workers can meet them can be found via the links below: s/appendixb/
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