Homework Solutions  Lecture 4


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1 Homework Solutions  Lecture 4 1. Estimate fundamental growth in EBIT for Nike based on the firm s reinvestment rate and ROC in the most recent year. Be sure to incorporate any necessary adjustments made in prior assignments (for example, adjustments for onetime charges, operating leases, capitalization of advertising, etc.). How does your estimate of fundamental growth compare to the firm's actual growth in EBIT over the past year? The inputs necessary for calculating fundamental growth, come directly from the lecture 3 homework solutions. The reinvestment rate in the current year is defined based on adjusted measures of reinvestment and aftertax operating income. From problem 4 in the Lecture 3 homework, we have: Adjusted EBIT(1T)  (Capex  Depr)  ( )  Acquisition Costs (Advertising  Amort)  ( )  Increase in WC  (758.1) FCFF $2,676.3 Reinvestment Given this information, the reinvestment rate is defined as follows: ( Capex Depr) + ( Advertising Amort) + Acquisition Costs + WC Reinvestment Rate Adjusted EBIT(1 T ) ( ) + ( ) % Note that a negative reinvestment rate suggests that the firm is reducing its shortterm and longterm operating assets. This will generate cash flow today, but the resulting negative reinvestment rate will lead to negative growth in future earnings. The negative reinvestment rate here results primarily from the reduction in working capital. One alternative that we might consider would be to look at a smoothed measure of working capital change, rather than looking at the raw working capital numbers. For example, we could estimate working capital as a % of revenues. Damodaran finds that working capital in the specialty retail industry averages 13.13% of revenues. In the most recent year, Nike's revenues dropped from to , a decrease of Using this change in revenue, we could estimates a smoothed measure of the change in working capital as 13.13% times , or Substituting this change in working capital in the formula above would give reinvestment of and a reinvestment rate of 6.99%. Similarly, we could forecast the change in working capital next year, by taking 13.13% times our forecast of the change in revenue in the next year.
2 Ideally, we should define ROC as the adjusted aftertax operating income in the current year divided by the adjusted beginningofyear value of debt plus equity. For simplicity, I will define the ROC using the current year's adjusted debt and equity values. From the lecture 3 homework, we found that the adjusted book values of debt and equity were and Another simple alternative would be to assume that the beginning of year adjustments to debt and equity are the same as the current adjustments. Using my approximation, we get: ROC 12.70% ( ) Assuming ROC does not change over time, fundamental growth in operating income is defined as: g EBIT ( Reinvestment Rate)( ) (. 2835)(.1270) 3.60% ROC Ignoring operating lease and advertising adjustments to EBIT (but removing onetime charges), the historical growth rate from 2009 to 2010 was 0.78%. However, if we correctly incorporate adjustments to operating income in both years, operating income decreases from 2,283 million to 2, million, or 8.66%. Our forecasted fundamental growth rate is slightly higher than the actual (adjusted) historical growth rate. This difference may reflect the decrease in ROC from 14.7% in 2009 to 12.7% in **Note that the analysis above ignores any changes in ROC. To correctly analyze past fundamental growth, we would need to incorporate any changes in ROC over time. To correctly forecast future income based on fundamental growth, we would need to incorporate any future changes in ROC based on our ROC forecast.
3 2. Estimate fundamental growth in Net Income for Nike based on the firm s equity reinvestment rate and ROE. Be sure to incorporate any necessary adjustments made in prior assignments (for example, adjustments for onetime charges, capitalization of advertising, etc.). How does your estimate of fundamental growth compare to the firms actual growth in Net Income over the past year? Again, the inputs necessary for calculating fundamental growth come directly from the lecture 3 homework solutions. The equity reinvestment rate in the current year is defined based on adjusted measures of reinvestment and net income: From problem 4 in the Lecture 3 homework, we have: Adjusted Net Income  (Capex  Depr)  ( )  Acquisition Costs (Advertising  Amort)  ( )  Increase in WC  (758.1)  Net Debt Repayments FCFE $2,425.9 Equity Reinvestment Given this information, the equity reinvestment rate is defined as follows: Equity Reinvestment ( Capex Depr) + ( Advertising Amort) + Acquisition Costs + WC Net Debt Issues Rate Net Income ( ) + ( ) % Note that I have incorporated net debt issues (i.e., debt repayments) in my calculation of equity reinvestment. As an alternative, we could take the total amount of reinvestment and multiply by one minus the debttocapital ratio. Although I do not show it here, we could again use a smoothed measure of change in working capital, where working capital is defined as a % of revenues. Ideally, we should define ROE as adjusted net income in the current year divided by the adjusted beginningofyear value of equity. For simplicity, I will define the ROE using the current year's adjusted equity value. Another simple alternative would be to assume that the beginning of year adjustment to equity is the same as the current adjustment. Using my approximation, we get: ROE % Assuming ROE does not change over time, fundamental growth in operating income is defined as: g NI ( Equity Reinvestment Rate)( ) (. 1706)(.1434) 2.46% ROE Ignoring the advertising adjustments to Net Income (but removing onetime charges as in lecture 3), the historical growth rate from 2009 to 2010 was 1.71%. If we correctly incorporate adjustments in both years, Net Income decreases from 2,231.4 million to 2, million, or 7.12%. After incorporating the appropriate adjustments, our forecasted fundamental growth rate is slightly higher than the actual growth rate (though both were negative). The difference likely reflects a drop in ROE from 16.9% in 2009 to 14.3% in 2010.
4 **Note that the analysis above ignores any changes in ROE. To correctly analyze past fundamental growth, we would need to incorporate any changes in ROE over time. To correctly forecast future income based on fundamental growth, we would need to incorporate any future changes in ROE based on our ROE forecast.
5 3. Consider a simple firm that pays no taxes and pays out all of its earnings as dividends. In the current year, the firm has total revenues of $500 million and total expenses of $400 million. The firm's book value of capital at the beginning of the year was $1 billion. a) Calculate the firm's operating income and its return on capital (ROC) in the current year. Operating Income $500  $400 $100 million ROC 100/ % b) The current inflation rate is 3% and the firm expects this inflation rate to affect revenues and expenses equally (i.e., both will increase by 3% in the second year). Given these assumptions, calculate the firm's operating income and its return on capital (ROC) in the second year. Operating Income $500(1.03)  $400(1.03) $515  $412 $103 million ROC 103/ % c) Calculate the percentage change (growth rate) in operating income for this firm from the first year to the second. Using the fundamental growth equation we discussed in class, write the firm's growth rate as a function of reinvestment and return on capital (ROC). g EBIT, Actual % g EBIT, Fundametal ( Reinv Rate)( ROC) ROC ( 0) (10.3%) % Note that inflation leads to a 3% increase in ROC, because earnings are affected by inflation while the book value of capital is not. As a result, even though the firm does no reinvestment, inflation leads to a fundamental growth rate of 3%.
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