Simplifying design and construction. Alan Tovey, Director The Basement Information Centre

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1 Simplifying design and construction Alan Tovey, Director The Basement Information Centre

2 Simplifying design and construction Grades of construction Construction options Design and waterproofing issues Basement Approved Document 2004 Other Available information

3 Available Information - Publications Basement 1 - Benefits and costs (1991, 1999, 2005) Basement 2 - Design Guide Soil pressures and masonry (1991) Basement 3 - Thermal insulation (1993) Basement 4 Layout Design Example (1994) Waterproofing Design Guide (1994) Waterproofing Site Guide (1994) Waterproofing existing structures (BSWA, 2005) Approved Document (1997, 2004) Basement Land use (2) (1998) Others on Website

4 Available Information - Publications Basement 1 - Benefits and costs (1991, 1999, 2005) Basement 2 - Design Guide Soil pressures and masonry (1991) Basement 3 - Thermal insulation (1993) Basement 4 Layout Design Example (1994) Waterproofing Design Guide (1994) Waterproofing Site Guide (1994) Waterproofing existing structures (BSWA, 2005) Approved Document (1997, 2004) Basement Land use (2) (1998) Others on Website

5 Available Information - Publications Basement 1 - Benefits and costs (1991, 1999, 2005) Basement 2 - Design Guide Soil pressures and masonry (1991) Basement 3 - Thermal insulation (1993) Basement 4 Layout Design Example (1994) Waterproofing Design Guide (1994) Waterproofing Site Guide (1994) Waterproofing existing structures (BSWA, 2005) Approved Document (1997, 2004) British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations Basements for dwellings Basement Land use (2) (1998) Others on Website

6 Available Information - Publications Basement 1 - Benefits and costs (1991, 1999, 2005) Basement 2 - Design Guide Soil pressures and masonry (1991) Basement 3 - Thermal insulation (1993) Basement 4 Layout Design Example (1994) Waterproofing Design Guide (1994) Waterproofing Site Guide (1994) Waterproofing existing structures (BSWA, 2005) Approved Document (1997, 2004) Basement Land use (2) (1998) Others on Website Pending Approved Document additions: -- Plain Masonry and Plain In-situ Conc. Retaining Walls due for Public Comment Feb 2005

7 Grades and types of construction

8 Table 1 (BS 8102) Guide to level of protection to suit basement use Grade Basement usage Performance level Form of construction 1 Car parking: plant rooms (excluding electrical equipment); workshops 2 Workshops and plant rooms requiring drier environment; retail storage areas 3 Ventilated residential and working areas including offices, restaurants etc., leisure centres 4 Archives and stores requiring controlled environment Some seepage and damp patches tolerable No water penetration but moisture vapour tolerable Dry environment Totally dry environment Type B - BS8110 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type C Type A Type B - BS 800 Type C ventilated (+ vapour control)

9 Table 1 (BS 8102) Guide to level of protection to suit basement use Grade Basement usage Performance level Form of construction 1 1 Car parking: plant rooms (excluding electrical equipment); workshops 2 Workshops and plant rooms requiring drier environment; retail storage areas 3 Ventilated residential and working areas including offices, restaurants etc., leisure centres 4 Archives and stores requiring controlled environment Some seepage and damp patches tolerable No water penetration but moisture vapour tolerable Dry environment Totally dry environment Type B - BS8110 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type C Type A Type B - BS 800 Type C ventilated (+ vapour control)

10 Table 1 (BS 8102) Guide to level of protection to suit basement use Grade Basement usage Performance level Form of construction 1 1 Car parking: plant rooms (excluding electrical equipment); workshops 2 Workshops and plant rooms requiring drier environment; retail storage areas 3 Ventilated residential and working areas including offices, restaurants etc., leisure centres Archives and stores requiring 4 controlled environment Some seepage and damp patches tolerable No water penetration but moisture vapour tolerable Dry environment Totally dry environment Type B - BS8110 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type C Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type C ventilated (+ (+ vapour control)

11 Table 1 (BS 8102) Guide to level of protection to suit basement use Grade Basement usage Performance level Form of construction 1 1 Car parking: plant rooms (excluding electrical equipment); workshops 2 Workshops and plant rooms requiring drier environment; retail storage areas 3 Ventilated residential and working areas including offices, restaurants etc., leisure centres Archives and stores requiring 4 controlled environment Some seepage and damp patches tolerable No water penetration but moisture vapour tolerable Dry environment Totally dry environment Type B - BS8110 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type C Type A Type B - BS 8007 Type C ventilated (+ (+ vapour control) 2 Minimum for garages 3 Minimum for accommodation Approved Document - Basements for dwellings

12 Wall construction types - BS8102 Total reliance on waterproofing Structure provides main water resistance Structure provides some water resistance with internal drainage system WALL TYPE A (Masonry) WALL TYPE B (Insitu concrete) WALL TYPE C ( concrete new build) (masonry existing)

13 TYPE A STRUCTURES ( Tanked protection ) External waterproofing Sandwich waterproofing Internal waterproofing

14 TYPE B STRUCTURES ( Structurally integral protection ) External or internal waterstop as reqd Crystallization, hydrophilic or injected waterstop? Kickered construction Kickerless construction

15 TYPE C STRUCTURES ( Drained protection ) Preformed cavity floor and wall drain system Drainage sump with pumped outlet

16 Part C Resistance to moisture AD Basement for dwellings 2004 British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations 1991 Basements for dwellings Generally water-proofing recommendations same: as in 1997 version except Type C now with full sump

17 Fig 2A.4 Acceptability of construction types Water Type A Type B Type C table Waterproofing drainage Plus Plus W- Plus W- BS 8110 BS 8007 BS 8110 BS 8007 proofing proofing Plus moisture barrier Low ACCEPTABLE Variable High Notes See Note 2 Not recommended CONSTRUCTION Note 1 Note 1 Decreasing risk 1. In high water table seek manufacturer s advise 2. Some constructions may be suitable depending on conditions From : Approved Document Basements for Dwellings

18 Fig 2A.4 Acceptability of construction types Water Type A Type B Type C table Waterproofing drainage Plus Plus W- Plus W- BS 8110 BS 8007 BS 8110 BS 8007 proofing proofing Plus moisture barrier Low ACCEPTABLE Permanently below Variable High Notes See Note 2 Not recommended CONSTRUCTION Note 1 Note 1 Decreasing risk 1. In high water table seek manufacturer s advise 2. Some constructions may be suitable depending on conditions From : Approved Document Basements for Dwellings

19 Fig 2A.4 Acceptability of construction types Water Type A Type B Type C table Waterproofing drainage Plus Plus W- Plus W- BS 8110 BS 8007 BS 8110 BS 8007 proofing proofing Plus moisture barrier Low ACCEPTABLE Period? Variable High Notes See Note 2 Not recommended CONSTRUCTION Note 1 Note 1 Decreasing risk 1. In high water table seek manufacturer s advise 2. Some constructions may be suitable depending on conditions From : Approved Document Basements for Dwellings

20 Fig 2A.4 Acceptability of construction types Water Type A Type B Type C table Waterproofing drainage Plus Plus W- Plus W- BS 8110 BS 8007 BS 8110 BS 8007 proofing proofing Plus moisture barrier Low ACCEPTABLE Permanently above Variable High Notes See Note 2 Not recommended CONSTRUCTION Note 1 Note 1 Decreasing risk 1. In high water table seek manufacturer s advise 2. Some constructions may be suitable depending on conditions From : Approved Document Basements for Dwellings

21 Construction options

22 TYPICAL RANGE OF CONSTRUCTION METHODS Reinforcement Restraining ties Reinforcement In-situ concrete infill Expanded polystyrene formwork system EPS formwork In-situ concrete In-situ concrete infill Reinforcement Wall ties Reinforcement Masonry Precast concrete

23 Types of construction Masonry Basement Walls

24 Filled hollow blocks Plan view Water proofing Key items Strength of units Reinforcement - Vert and Horiz Compaction?? Waterproofing details Running bond may offset cores Cross section Cores not parallel

25 Filled cavity block wall Plan view British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations 1991 Basements for dwellings Water proofing Key items Strength of units. Reinforcement - Vert and Horiz. Compaction easier ( 100mm continuous cavity ) Waterproofing details Cross section

26 Types of construction - contd Pre-cast and PC insulated Pre-cast/insitu hybrid walls Expanded Polystyrene Formwork Poured In-Situ Basement Wall

27 Pre-Cast Concrete Wall

28 Pre-cast/insitu hybrid walls

29 Expanded Polystyrene Formwork

30 Expanded Polystyrene Formwork

31 Poured In-Situ Basement Wall

32 Design and Water proofing issues

33 Design Considerations Structure Waterproofing Repair

34 WATERPROOFING DESIGN PRINCIPLES Decide on basement usage Gather site information Decide on form of construction Decide on form of waterproofing

35 Approved Document Fig 2A.1 Determining appropriate form of basement construction and waterproofing 9 Stages British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations 1991 Basements for dwellings

36 Determining appropriate form of basement construction and waterproofing Proposed development Site survey Basement use Environmental requirements Geology Water table Topography Soil drainage Design considerations House type and Foundation design No Is Construction buildable? Yes SOLUTION Basement Construction Type A/B/C Selection of Waterproofing system

37 External drainage Geocomposite drainage sheet Ground level Basement structure Percolating ground water External or internal waterproofing as appropriate Perimeter drain (fin or land drain to discharge water to down side) If external drained used to control conditions >> Make rodable

38 General principles External or internal waterproofing as appropriate Basement structure Generally waterproofing to basement to be continuous Adequate details must be provided for junction, etc Details and construction should be as simple as possible

39 External or internal waterproofing as appropriate? Basement structure Continuity seems simple But essential to consider with structure

40 Waterproofing Details Assumed continuity!!??

41 Foundation details Type A structure - strip foundation External or internal waterproofing External or internal waterproofing Discontinuity between slab and wall Slab built-in

42 Foundation details Type A structure - piled foundation Internal waterproofing? Difficult to achieve external waterproofing

43 Interaction of water proofing with structure

44 Structural design - Waterproofing Ultimately won t fail but serviceability conditions may affect waterproofing Simple design of section

45 Design structure in three dimensions Cross section Bending moments in structure

46 Design structure in three dimensions Cross section Bending moments in structure Corner moments sometimes over looked Plan

47 Continuity of horizontal reinforcement in masonry walls (Figure 3A.3, AD Basements) British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations 1991 Basements for dwellings Horizontal reinforcement = 0.5 A s along wall and around corners Plan view Main vertical reinforcement Similar detail provided for insitu walls (Fig 3B.2) Cross section

48 Insitu concrete options Ties required! Corbel details? Construction? Large section but easy to concrete Waterproofing details? Comment - Need to consider construction abilities/difficulties

49 Design in three dimensions - waterproofing Drawing is simple in two dimensions But structures are three dimensional!! Waterproofing membrane shown following thickened profile Cross section

50 Design in three dimensions - waterproofing Drawing is simple in two dimensions But structures are three dimensional!! Waterproofing membrane shown following thickened profile Cross section Membrane likely to require preformed sections to cater for mitre Comment: If not catered for can lead to construction defects Plan view at corner

51 Design in three dimensions - waterproofing Drawing is simple in two dimensions But structures are three dimensional!! Waterproofing membrane OK here Cross section Simpler square corner no mitre Comment: Design can help waterproofing Plan view at corner

52 Ensure compatibility between waterproofing and structure Stress and crack width controlled by reinforcement. Likely to be compatible with most waterproofing membranes In an unreinforced wall, crack width is uncontrolled. May exceed strain capacity of some waterproofing membranes. Reinforced wall Un-reinforced wall Comment: Structural behaviour can affect selection of waterproofing

53 Can basement be investigated and repaired? Example 1 May influence redesign and choice of waterproofing. Internal/External? Structure designed for water-resistance (Type B)

54 Can basement be investigated and repaired? Example 1 May influence redesign and choice of waterproofing. Internal/External? Structure designed for water-resistance (Type B)

55 Can basement be investigated and repaired? Example 1 May influence redesign and choice of waterproofing. Internal/External? Structure designed for water-resistance (Type B)

56 Can basement be investigated and repaired? Example 1 Example 2 May influence redesign and choice of waterproofing. Internal/External??? Structure designed for water-resistance (Type B) Plan Basement under part of area of house

57 Other Design Issues British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations 1991 Basements for dwellings

58 BritisNatio hcenalh ment ouse Aso-Build ciatioingc ounc il The Bui lding Re gula tion s19 91 B asem ent sfor dwe ling s The new Approved Document Basements for dwellings British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations Basements for dwellings Amended to deal with B Regs 2000 Covers A, B, C, E, F, H, K, L, N, J and Vehicle access As for AD Plus Part M

59 Contents Site preparation and resistance to moisture Structure Fire safety Conservation of fuel and power Ventilation Resistance to the passage of sound B Regs part C A B L F E

60 Contents Contd Stairs, ramps and guards Glazing - materials and protection Drainage and waste disposal Heat producing appliances Vehicle access B Regs part K N H J

61 Significant guidance on: Site preparation and resistance to moisture Structure Conservation of fuel and power

62 Site preparation and resistance to moisture Gives Guidance on: Subsoil drainage Obtaining water- resistance

63 Structure Gives Guidance on: Masonry retaining walls In-situ concrete retaining walls Foundations - plain and reinforced

64 Masonry retaining walls Table 3A.2 AD - Basements: Minimum masonry strength and reinforcement for 2.7 m propped retaining wall 2.7 m Foundation type Soil type (well drained) Vertical load (kn/m) up to Moment taken at base of wall (kn/m) Block comp. strength (N/mm 2 ) Brick comp. strength (N/mm 2 ) Area of reinfment As (mm 2 /m) Strip Clay Granular Table in AD also covers raft foundation and different vertical load Similar tables for 2.1 m and 1.6 m cantilevered walls 2.1 and 1.6 m

65 Insitu concrete retaining walls Table 3B.1 Minimum reinforcement for 2.7 m propped in-situ concrete retaining wall 2.7 m Foundation type Soil type (well drained) Vertical load (kn/m) up to Moment taken at base of wall (kn/m) Area of reinforcement As (mm 2 /m) Wall thickness (mm) Strip Clay * Granular * Table in AD also covers raft foundation and different vertical load Similar tables for 2.1 m and 1.6 m cantilevered walls 2.1 and 1.6 m

66 Centre line of retaining wall British Cement Association National House-Building Council The Building Regulations 1991 Retained ground Basement Foundation requirements for strip foundation Basements for dwellings 200 mm min. ( a ) ( b ) Width of foundation ( a ) + ( b ) Cover 40 mm Reinforcement as paragraph 3B.3.4 Centre line of retaining wall Basement Internal wall C Requirement for raft foundation T (to be not less than 200 mm Retained ground Reinforcement as paragraph 3C.5.1 Foundation should extend past centreline of retaining wall by a distance equal to 2T, where T is the thickness of the foundation Reinforcement as paragraph 3C.5.3 Cover 20 mm 1200 mm = C = 1200 mm minimum minimum Cover 40 mm Reinforcement as paragraph 3C.5.2

67 Conservation of fuel and power Gives Guidance on: General requirements Tables for wall insulation thickness Tables for floor insulation thickness Calculation procedures Only in AD Basements for dwellings Not included in AD L1

68 Simplifying design and construction Available information, Inc AD Basement s Grades of construction, Construction options Design and waterproofing issues Structure Waterproofing Repair Adopt simple details Approved Document 2004 Simplifies design for walls, and foundations and aids reliability

69 And so to the finished project By simplifying the design

70 Building into the Basement

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